Reference


Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to refer to the second object. The second object – the one to which the first object refers – is called the referent of the first object.
The term reference is used in many spheres of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, spacetime coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography.
Etymology
The word reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French référer, from Latin referre, “to carry back”, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, “to bear”.A large number of words derive from this root, including referee, referent, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as “a point, place or source of origin” in terms of which something of comparable nature can be defined. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy.
Computer science
In computer science, references are data types that refer to an object elsewhere in memory and are used to construct a wide variety of data structures, such as linked lists. Generally, a reference is a value that enables a program to directly access the particular data item. Most programming languages support some form of reference.
The C++ programming language has a specific type of reference also referred to as a “reference”; see reference (C++).
Bibliographies
Bibliographies are special reference works that are used to identify as many published works on a given subject as possible, and serve as compilations for other authors or researchers.
Library and information sciences
In a library, “reference” may refer to a dictionary, an encyclopedia or other reference work, that contains many brief articles that cover a broad scope of knowledge in one book, or a set of books. However, the word reference is also used to mean a book that cannot be taken from the room, or from the building. Many of the books in the reference department of a library are reference works, but some are books that are simply too large or valuable to loan out. Conversely, selected reference works may be shelved with other circulating books, and may be loaned out.
References to many types of printed matter may come in an electronic or machine-readable form. For books, there exists the ISBN and for journal articles, the Digital object identifier (DOI) is gaining relevance. Information on the Internet may be referred to by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI).
Librarians also conduct reference interviews at the library reference desks, to help people find the information they seek. Help may also be available outside the library though virtual reference and digital reference services.
Encyclopedias & books of facts
Some published sources are produced as reference works that allow quick access to essential information about given subjects, sometimes compiled as topical collections, and sometimes as general collections of entries.
Psychology
In terms of mental processing, a self-reference is used in psychology to establish identification with a mental state during self-analysis. This seeks to allow the individual to develop own frames of reference in a greater state of immediate awareness. However, it can laso lead to circular reasoning, preventing evolution of thought.
Economics and business
In the labour market, potential employers often ask job applicants for references or recommendations, so that their suitability can be verified independently. The references can be a written letter, but are often just a contact telephone number. Employers can ask for professional references, which are from former employers, or for character references, which are from people of distinction such as doctors or teachers. The source of the reference must be well known to the applicant and able to vouch for their abilities during employment.
In business administration, terms of reference describe the purpose and structure of a project, committee, meeting, negotiation, or any similar collection of people who have agreed to work together to accomplish a shared goal. The terms of reference of a project are often referred to as the project charter.
Education
In academics and scholarship, an author-title-date information in bibliographies and footnotes, specifying complete works of other people. Copying of material by another author without proper citation or without required permissions is plagiarism.
Keeping a diary allows an individual to use references for personal organization, whether or not anyone else understands the systems of reference used. However, scholars have studied methods of reference because of their key role in communication and co-operation between different people, and also because of misunderstandings that can arise. Modern academic study of reference has been developing since the 19th Century.
In scholarship, a reference may be a citation of a text that has been used in the creation of a piece of work such as an essay, report, or oration. Its primary purpose is to allow people who read such work to examine the author’s sources, either for validity or to learn more about the subject. Such items are often listed at the end of an article or book in a section marked “Bibliography” or “References”. A bibliographical section often contains works not cited by the author, but used as background reading or listed as potentially useful to the reader. A reference section contains all of the works and only those works cited by the author(s) in the main text.
Law
In law, references are documents or people providing witness to character. This connotation is also used in employment.
In patent law, a reference is a document that can be used to show the state of knowledge at a given time and that therefore may make a claimed invention obvious or anticipated. Examples of references are patents of any country, magazine articles, Ph.D. theses that are indexed and thus accessible to those interested in finding information about the subject matter, and to some extent Internet material that is similarly accessible.
In Canadian law, a reference question is a procedure through which the government can submit legal questions to the Supreme Court of Canada and provincial governments to the provincial courts of appeal.
Semantics
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them. Hence, the word “John” refers to John. The word “it” refers to some previously specified object. The object referred to is called the “referent” of the word. Sometimes the word-object relation is called “denotation”; the word denotes the object. The converse relation, the relation from object to word, is called “exemplification”; the object exemplifies what the word denotes. In syntactic analysis, if a word refers to a previous word, the previous word is called the “antecedent”.
Meaning
Gottlob Frege argued that reference cannot be treated as identical with meaning: “Hesperus” (an ancient Greek name for the evening star) and “Phosphorus” (an ancient Greek name for the morning star) both refer to Venus, but the astronomical fact that ‘”Hesperus” is “Phosphorus”‘ can still be informative, even if the “meanings” of “Hesperus” and “Phosphorus” are already known. This problem led Frege to distinguish between the sense and reference of a word. Some cases seem to be too complicated to be classified within this framework; the acceptance of the notion of secondary reference may be necessary to fill the gap.
Absent referent
Words can often be meaningful without having a concrete here-and-now referent. Fictional and mythological names such as “Bo-Peep” and “Hercules” illustrate this possibility. Sign links with absent referents also allow for discussing abstract ideas (“love,” “peace”) as well as people and events of the past and future.
For those who argue that one cannot directly experience the divine (e.g. God), the sign “God” can serve as an example of a reference with an absent referent. Additionally, certain sects of Judaism and other religions consider it sinful to write, discard, or deface the name of the divine. To avoid this problem, the signifier G-d is sometimes used, though this could be seen as a sign that refers to another sign with an absent referent.
Linguistic sign
Certain parts of speech exist only to express reference, namely anaphora such as pronouns. The subset of reflexives expresses co-reference of agent (actor) and patient (acted on), as in “The man washed himself”.
Mathematics
In mathematics, the absent referent can be seen with the symbol for zero, “0” or the empty set, “{ }”.
A reference point in Geometry is a location used to describe another point, by giving the relative position. Similarly there is the concept of frame of reference (both in physics and figuratively) and benchmark (in surveying and figuratively).
Engineering
In engineering a reference design is often used during the pre-production phase of design development to test design features against original specifications.
Arts
In Art, a reference is an item from which a work is based. This may include:
• an existing artwork,
• a reproduction (i.e., photo),
• directly observed object (i.e., person), or
• the artist’s memory.
Another example of reference is samples of various musical works being incorporated into a new one.
Literature and rhetoric
In academic literature, a reference is a previously published written work within academic publishing that has been used as a source for theory or claims referred to that are used in the text. References contain complete bibliographic information so the interested reader can find them in a library. References can be added either at the end of the publication or as footnotes.
In publishing, a reference is citation of a work, in a footnote, from which an idea was taken.
REFERNCES STYLES OR FORMAT
Some examples of style guides include:
Humanities
• The Chicago Style (CMOS) was developed and its guide is The Chicago Manual of Style. It is most widely used in history and economics as well as some social sciences. Its derivative is the closely related Turabian style which is designed for student references and is distinguished from the CMOS by omission of quotation marks in reference lists and mandatory access date citation.
• The Columbia Style was made by Janice R. Walker and Todd Taylor to give detailed guidelines for citing internet sources. Columbia Style offers models for both the humanities and the sciences.
• Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace by Elizabeth Shown Mills covers primary sources not included in CMOS, such as censuses, court, land, government, business, and church records. Includes sources in electronic format. Used by genealogists and historians.
• Harvard referencing (or author-date system) is a specific kind of parenthetical referencing. Parenthetical referencing is recommended by both the British Standards Institution and the Modern Language Association. Harvard referencing involves a short author-date reference, e.g., “(Smith, 2000)”, being inserted after the cited text within parentheses and the full reference to the source being listed at the end of the article.
• MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association and is most often used in the arts and the humanities, particularly in English studies, other literary studies, including comparative literature and literary criticism in languages other than English (“foreign languages”), and some interdisciplinary studies, such as cultural studies, drama and theatre, film, and other media, including television. This style of citations and bibliographical format uses parenthetical referencing with author-page (Smith 395) or author-[short] title-page (Smith, Contingencies 42) in the case of more than one work by the same author within parentheses in the text, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources on a “Works Cited” page at the end of the paper, as well as notes (footnotes or endnotes). See The MLA Style Manual and The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, particularly Citation and bibliography format.[18]
• The MHRA Style Guide is published by the Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA) and most widely used in the arts and humanities in the United Kingdom, where the MHRA is based. It is available for sale both in the UK and in the United States. It is similar to MLA style, but has some differences. For example, MHRA style uses footnotes that reference a citation fully while also providing a bibliography. Some readers find it advantageous that the footnotes provide full citations, instead of shortened references, so that they do not need to consult the bibliography while reading for the rest of the publication details.
In some areas of the Humanities, footnotes are used exclusively for references, and their use for conventional footnotes (explanations or examples) is avoided. In these areas, the term “footnote” is actually used as a synonym for “reference”, and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.
Law

• The Bluebook is a citation system traditionally used in American academic legal writing, and the Bluebook (or similar systems derived from it) are used by many courts.[At present, academic legal articles are always footnoted, but motions submitted to courts and court opinions traditionally use inline citations which are either separate sentences or separate clauses. Inline citations allow readers to quickly determine the strength of a source based on, for example, the court a case was decided in and the year it was decided.
• The legal citation style used almost universally in Canada is based on the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (aka McGill Guide), published by McGill Law Journal.
• British legal citation almost universally follows the Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA).
Sciences, mathematics, engineering, physiology, and medicine
Main article: Scientific citation
• The American Chemical Society style, or ACS style, is often used in chemistry and other physical sciences. In ACS style references are numbered in the text and in the reference list, and numbers are repeated throughout the text as needed.
• In the style of the American Institute of Physics (AIP style), references are also numbered in the text and in the reference list, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
• Styles developed for the American Mathematical Society (AMS), or AMS styles, such as AMS-LaTeX, are typically implemented using the BibTeX tool in the LaTeX typesetting environment. Brackets with author’s initials and year are inserted in the text and at the beginning of the reference. Typical citations are listed in-line with alphabetic-label format, e.g. [AB90]. This type of style is also called a “Authorship trigraph.”
• The Vancouver system, recommended by the Council of Science Editors (CSE), is used in medical and scientific papers and research.
o In one major variant, that used by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), citation numbers are included in the text in square brackets rather than as superscripts. All bibliographical information is exclusively included in the list of references at the end of the document, next to the respective citation number.
o The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is reportedly the original kernel of this biomedical style which evolved from the Vancouver 1978 editors’ meeting.The MEDLINE/PubMed database uses this citation style and the National Library of Medicine provides “ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals — Sample References”.
• The style of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), or IEEE style, encloses citation numbers within square brackets and numbers them consecutively, with numbers repeated throughout the text as needed.
• Pechenik Citation Style is a style described in A Short Guide to Writing about Biology, 6th ed. (2007), by Jan A. Pechenik.
• In 2006, Eugene Garfield proposed a bibliographic system for scientific literature, to consolidate the integrity of scientific publications.
Social sciences
• The style of the American Psychological Association, or APA style, published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, is most often used in social sciences. APA style uses Harvard referencing within the text, listing the author’s name and year of publication, keyed to an alphabetical list of sources at the end of the paper on a References page.
• The American Political Science Association publishes both a style manual and a style guide for publications in this field. The style is close to the CMOS.
• The American Anthropological Association utilizes a modified form of the Chicago Style laid out in their Publishing Style Guide.
• The ASA style of American Sociological Association is one of the main styles used in sociological publications.

References
• “ACS (American Chemical Society) Style Guidelines Quick Guide”. Berkeley.edu. 2006. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/CHEM/acsstyle.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
• “Anatomy of a Citation”. LIUNet.edu. Archived from the original on January 9, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080109081406/http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workbook/evaluate.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
• “APA Citation Format”. Lesley.edu. 2005. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071228053242/http://www.lesley.edu/library/guides/citation/apa.html. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
• “APA Citation Format”. RIT.edu. 2003. http://wally.rit.edu/pubs/guides/apa.html. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
• Armstrong, J Scott (July 1996). “The Ombudsman: Management Folklore and Management Science – On Portfolio Planning, Escalation Bias, and Such”. Interfaces (Providence: Institute of Management Sciences) 26 (4): 28–42. OCLC 210941768. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/armstrong-managementfolklore.pdf.
o ^ Treanor, Brian, Aspects of alterity: Levinas, Marcel, and the contemporary debate, Fordham University Press, 2006, p.41
o ^ Klein, Ernest, A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language, Vol II, Elsevier publishing company, Amsterdam, 1969, p.1317
o ^ Engle, Eric, Lex Naturalis, Ius Naturalis: Law as Positive Reasoning & Natural Rationality, The Rlias Clark Group, Melbourne, 2010, p.75
o ^ Reimer, Marga (2009). “Reference”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
o ^ Saeed, John, Semantics, Blackwell, p. 12, ISBN 0-631-22693-1

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