Religion is one of the universal aspects of human culture. Every where the world over, human beings are adherents of one religious group or the other. That being the case, religion is an essential part of the human socio-cultural environment. It has been one of the social determinants of the shape of human society. Nigeria Army religion has thus played and continues to play a great role in the development of the Nigeria Army.
Religion has a relevant place in the Nigeria Army,. The colonial masters were the founding fathers of the Nigerian army. The spread of their religion (Christianity constituted an integral part of the British colonization of Africa. This is to say that the Nigerian army sprang up with religion, particularly Christianity. The army comprises of many segments and corps. The religion sector is called Nigeria chaplain service, there is also the Islamic sector known as the directorate of Islamic Affairs.
Islamic religion is specifically given in the Quran (5:3) as the religion which was brought mankind through prophet Muhammed (PBOH). Means peace and absolute submission to the will of God. In Islam, God is regarded as absolute. He is one and indivisible, without any partner or associate. Islam considered any form of divisibility or multiplicity of God as shirk or polytheism. The Islamic notice of God is contained in chapter 112:1-4 of the Quran which states.
He is Allah, the only one
Allah is the self- sufficient
On whom all creatures depend
He nether begets, nor was
He begotten, and there is none like Him. This Islamic religion indicates that, no being whether animate or inanimate has identical attributes with God. The worship of God in Islam means adoration and worship is only directed to Allah, al-Ghazzali (1058-1111).
Impacts of religion in Nigeria Army has clearly established the fact that there is no incompatibility in the Military discipline and that of the Christian and Islamic religion, the ideals of a Soldier and that of the believer. In fact, Christianity (religion) more than anything else ehance diligence, Loyalty discipline, scarified and responsibility which are all it takes to be a good soldier. The unique impact in the Nigeria Army. Religion/Christianity/ Islamic is as old as the Nigeria which is part of our colonial information in this projects has played a very unique role for the development of the Army and the Nation at larger.
Both religions urge that man should accept and abide fully by God’s wishers and designs, so as to enjoy God eternally in heaven after the present earthly sojourn. Both teach the existence of hell and the necessity of divine retribution. The two greatest Nigerian religion can co-exist only they abide by the teaching of the scripture and the Quran. The Quran enjoins Muslims to live amicably with the Christians and Jews and even to marry their women.
Both Christians and Muslims agree the Jesus came from God. The Quran affirms that Jesus foretold the coming of the seal of the prophets. There is no doubt that Christians appreciate that the essence of Islamic worship is submission to God.
Both religion aid each other in acquiring the right attitude and spirit worship.
4.4. IMPACTS OF CULTURE IN NIGERIAN ARMY
Over the years, much has been made either for weal or woe out of religion, a powerful phenomenon as old as man. Because of its potency and armed force, religion has come to influence and permeate virtually all aspects of human life religion, political, social, economic and cultural. It has therefore been observed that generally religion integrates all aspects of culture since every experience of man comes under its scrutiny. Every human interest can be seen as a religious interest. It acts as a building link between Nigerian Army and different sections of society of explains the relationships, for example lineage, village, Chief dom, larger political units, the cosmos. Units. Religion/culture introduces harmony and discipline and order into social activities. It provides leadership and gives purpose, in Nigeria Army; also impact of culture is creative and helps to make society productive. It creates new qualities and teaches heroism.
4.5 ROLES OF MILITARY/NIGERIA ARMY IN NIGERIA
The roles of military approach is micro-oriented and eclectic, and creates social facts in Isolation and thereby distorts reality. The roles of military approach on the hand is known for its ability to show clearly the organic and dialectical relationship between the Nigerian military and its environment, it is believed the environment shapes human behaviour in social roles and political life, and that changes in human relations are consequences of the social formation. The approach therefore becomes very indispensable in this type of study. Since it is the only approach that gives primacy to material conditions in the explanation of social life. Thus, it enable us to analytically link approaches of the military to the wider Nigerian political economy which determines, to a very large extent the normal performance of the military personnel’s.
The military is an arm of the Nigeria government of Nigeria and as a matter of fact, being controlled by her, which is class based and oppressive in all ramification. We will therefore, show how Nigerian Army is enforced by the Nigerian State as represented by the military which have over the year. Hence general Ibrahim Babangida and Sami Abacha became the most Military Heads of State that the role of Military Nigeria Army has ever produced and Committed during their time.
Role of Military/Nigeria Army, they should be confined to their various barracks. Any of their operations must be approved by the Federal parliament after due consultation with the military police/intelligence crew. To achieve this role, it should be made a constitutional matter so that every military man would know that he would be tried and convicted for treason if he takes part in any coup.
2.1 CONCEPTS OF THE RELIGO-CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
Okowa (1991:86) identified that Nigeria is the 1914 child of British colonialism. It is a country of diversities. The country is diverse in its geography, linguistic and ethnic structure it diverse in terms of socio-cultural and political culture. We shall however not let these diversities detain us here.
Maduwuba (1984:18) stated that in view of the fact that social, Religo-cultural institutions and political institutions do not exist in Isolation and that because colonial rule affected all aspects of the society.
This research study will not fail to highlight the religo-cultural institutions in Nation Building. Nigerian Army as a case study. Maduwuba all parts of the human society are inter-related and that one part of the system’s affected, its sure to impact religion in Nigeria Army.
As a part of human society, religion is closely associated with morality. It is contributed immensely to human development in Nation building. Man realizes and has the feelings that he is not dependent on himself that there is nothing he can do for himself and that is absolutely dependent on a power that is above him and that power is God.
On the other hand, religion is viewed as “recognition on the part of man of some higher Unseen power as having control of his destiny and as being entitled to obedience, reverence and worship to him who stands higher above man.
Okaba and Kilani (1991:25) in their own perspective understand the place religo-cultural that “religion is a specific system of belief in relationship with man and the university the research study centres on the state and can see that religion has a role to play in nation building in all its ramifications. Thus, the early missionaries who came to Nigeria, in their own ways, contributed to national development by way of introducing education, health-care delivery and other programmes that brought enlightenment and growth to the Nigerian Army. Christianity/Islamic made contributions. Both religion took into consideration both spiritual and materials needs for their converts in their conversion strategies and so directly and indirectly contribution to nation building in Nigerian Army.
2.3 THEORIES OF THE RELIGO-CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS
So many theories of religion have been proffered. Running through many of them is a rationalist bias that sees religion as a product of ignorance and unfounded fear. In Durkheim’s Summary, religion is noting but a dream, systematized and live but without any foundation in reality” (1915).
Religious institution ought to be placed where people go for solace and this is particularly significant at time such as this in our country where retrenchment, unemployment, dismissal and compulsory retirement are prevalent. Thus, some have seen religion as the answer to a comprehensive analysis of the economic, psychological, socio-political circumstance of the society and social justice. It teaches moral values condemning societal vices thereby helping to shape for good, the lives of the people, for instance, the conidial tenets of the indigenous religion are devoting, peace and love. The Christian doctrine in this regard is summed up in St. Luke gospel.
Thou shalt love the love thy God will all they heart and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength and with thy entire mind, and thy neighbour as thy self.
And worship Allah and associated naught with him and show kindness to parents and to kindred and orphans and the needy and to the neighbour that is a strange and the companion by your side and the wayfarer and those whom your right hand possesses. Sure Allah loves not the proud and the boastful. Peace, which is a necessary precondition for nation building, is advocated by all the three major religions in Nigeria today, it is however worthy of note here that religion has positive and negative aspects depending on the attitude and understanding of its devotees, Essentially, as we have seen religion ought to form the bulwark of every people to rejuvenation thereby Contributing politically, socio-economically and morally to national development.
However, like a two-edged sword, religion, at its worsted can be a peoples ruin, their most vulnerable point and a most divisive phenomenon. In other words religion can integrate a anation and can as well cause division. When he binding force in religion is lacking, the result is break down of law and order of the thereby destabilizing the process of nation building.
The main obstacle confronting religio-cultural especially Islam and Christianity) as practiced in Nigeria today is religious bigotry or religious intolerance. This has posted a big threat to the wholesome existence of these religious and most importantly fro contributing their expected quota to nation building especially as it concerns its integration, socio-economic and political development. Generally, the integrative role of religion in any society is so great, and no doubt, contributes immensely to the growth of a nation.
In recognition of this, navy caption mike Akigbe Warnedl posterity will not forgive us if we fail to unite because of religious difference. We owe it as a duty to bequeath to generations to come peace and concord which are the only attitudes that can sustain us as a nation.
There can be no doubt that during the period of nationalism in Nigeria, religious tolerance contributed greatly to the achievement of independence for Nigeria. Nationalists such as Nnamdi Azikiwe, Mazi Mibonu Ojike, Aminu Kano, Ahmadu Bello, Hebert Macauley and Chief Obafemi Awolowo, all joined hands together, regardless of their religious differences, and fought for and won independence for nation. Therefore, it has been observed that although there have always been little frictions in the distant past among the different religious groups in Nigeria; they have lived peace as partners in progress tolerating each other. But from 1960 there were a great deal of religious intolerance. The peace and unity was blown out by mischievous makers who have no interest and love for the nation. This is General Abacha said that religious conflict are dangerous and that those fanning the embers of conflict are security risks and should be avoided at all cost so as to maintain stability harmony and peaceful co-existence, necessary for nation building.
2.4 FUNCTIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RELIGO-CULTURAL INSTITUTION IN MILITARY
The army as a community has different institutions such as education, medical, engineering, stores, public relations, band corps, chaplaincy corps, etc. Each of these institutions has a specific role.
The Nigerian Army is a distinct body by itself within federation. It is subdivided into different formations such as divisions, brigades and battalions. These are located in specific place through out the community of military environment. Institutions in military, this is another major basis for religious functions in Nigeria. The military students and military teachers in educational institutions in Nigeria are adherent of the three major religions. This provides a good resources for dialogue in Nigeria Army Tracing this back to the colonial period. One discovers that education has always provided good opportunity for the interaction of religions adherent in Nigeria. Sam Baba Mala has this to say.
Traditionalist, Muslims and Christians go to the same school from the colonial days. Although this had the effect of making pupils to learn a religion other than their own, yet the students at school do not usually see themselves as enemies because of their religion different but brothers and sisters (1984:142),
It is worthy to note that the three main religions are taught in institutions of leaving in Nigeria. This also affords the military teachers who teach them the opportunity of coming together to discuses matters of common interest. If this spirit is brought into religion it could create a atmosphere for religions military dialogue to function in Nigeria.
2.5 RELIGIO-CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND NATION-BUILDING
Religion is one of the universal aspects of human culture. Every where the world over, human beings are adherents of one religions group or the other. That being the case, religion is an essential part of the human socio-cultural environment. It has been one of the social determinants of the shape of the human society. Religion has thus played and continues to play a great whole role in the development of human societies.
this research is aimed at surveying the religio-cultural institutions and Nation Building in Nigerian’s Army national life and development. it will be important of begin with a conceptual analysis of what religion is and what it is not.
In the comprehensive understanding, religion is the relation of man to that which man regards as Holy. The holy being could be supernational or even personal. according to A.B. Balogun, religion is the system by which man recognize the existence of a super-human controller of the universes. The recognition of God as the object of worship, love and obedience which ultimately leads to practical piety and morality. One of the most important explanations of the place of religion in society is that. “It is an explanation of the natural, social and supernatural world.
This clearly indicate that God is the central theme of the religions practiced in Nigeria today. in constructing an explanation of the relationship of God vis-à-vis religion and national development in Nigeria. We have to discuss the cosmologies of the religion involved, examine which aspect of these ideas appear most significant. African Religion.
There are different opinions that have been advanced as the appropriate nomenclature for African religion. Eriwvo Proposes African indigenous religion (AIR) and also in African Traditional religion (Afrel) is the indigenous religion of the Africans handed down from generation to generation by the for bearers of the present generations of Africans. It has no written Scriptures but it is, in fact, written in all aspects of African life.
Other religious institutions that contributed to the social stability of traditional African society were secret societies. They were predominant in most parts of Southern-and some parts of the middle Belt. Amonsgest these societies were the Ogboni and the Oro in Yorubaland the Ekpa and the leopard society in the cross rivers area, the Arochukwu in the Igbo country and the Owuegbe in Benin. Others were the Egungun in Yorubaland and the powerful cult of the Igboze in Urhobol and. The Ogboni Cult was devoted almost entirely to political purposes and it formed an Oligardry which ruled the country of the Egba, Ijebu and Oyo where the Alafin was its head. Before the dawn of Colonial rule, the Ogboni Cult had spread to Benin. The Oro and Egungun performed more or less social functions than political.
The form and content of national development in Nigeria changed with the introduction of the religion-Islam and Christianity into the Nigeria geographical area from the Arabian Peninsular and Europe respectively. As district from the traditional African religion, they claim Universalism are were inspired or founded by-Prophet Mohammed and Jesus Christ. Their most Peculiar feature is the proselyte Mission initiated by their progenitors a situation that resulted in the preponderance of different sects and groups all for the same evangelical purposes. Islam and Christianity brought new sets of beliefs and ideology, in fact a new welterching into Nigeria. Because of their affirmation and exclusiveness. Their introduction new cleavage, bigotry and intolerances. All of which affected the process of nation-building up to 1960 and since.
1. ROLES OF MILITARY/NIGERIAN ARMY IN NIGERIA
Finally, Rifles should be with drawn from some of the paramilitary bodies like-immigration, custom, national drug Law enforcement agency etc.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
This study highlights the significant contribution of Nigerian Army, Understanding the place of religio-cultural institutions in nation building. is remarkable for the many leading men and women in the Nigeria Army, have been active members to contribute in no small measure to development of the religious life. There are two recognized religious bodies in the Nigerian Army. Christianity and Islamic.
It was concluded that military service, therefore is permitted if it is undertaken not for motives of greed or cruelty but with a desire for peace. They stressed that the moral principles that govern the life of a soldier are clear. He is to fulfill his duties to the best of his ability according to the careful directions of his superiors. That in waging war he is to observe the norms of humanity that arise from the natural law, many of which are define by international treaties and covenants.
The research of this study review military Secretary (AHQ) for selection. Part of the exercise including a though medical examination, rigorous physical fitness test, written papers, oral interview based on the applicants field, current affairs, and general assessment of one’s mental alertness, intelligence and overall bearing. The short listed candidates are then sent for military training either in the Nigerian defence academic (NDA) or the command and staff college Jaji, Kaduna state. On completion of training, these candidates would now be commissioned as officers and sent to their various religious bodies and nation development.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Law: This refers to rules make by the authority for the proper regulation of a community or society in order to enhance proper relationship between individuals, institution, states etc.
1.5 SCOPES AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study primarily is an attempt to critically examine the understanding the place of Religio-cultural institution in Nation Building: Nigerian Army as a case study.
The research covers the comprehensive enough to be a nation building: Nigeria Army.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This surveys the history of the Nigeria Army, the origin of the military, and its link with the Christianity and Islamic, nation building, it also incorporates a brief history of Nigeria Army, its department and organizational structures. It also offers some recommendations to which will be useful for further research and development of the Nigeria Army and in the Armed forces at large.