Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer’s body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, and in sports, martial arts, combat, etc. It is a last resort protection system, to be used when substitution or engineering controls are not feasible. It should be understood that PPE does not reduce or eliminate the hazard. It only protects the wearer and does nothing for anybody else in the area or for any equipment exposed to the chemical.
PPE includes gloves, respiratory protection, eye protection, and protective clothing. The need for PPE is dependent upon the type of operations and the nature and quantity of the materials in use, and must be assessed on a case by case basis. Workers who rely on PPE must understand the function, proper use, and limitations of the PPE used.
Some of the PPE and safety gadgets as well as their uses can be seen below;

SAFETY BOOT; this is a protective gadgets for the feet. It is worn to prevent any harmful injuries that may affect the feet as well as the underneath of the feet

SAFETY EYE GLASSES; This is a protective eye devices that is used to prevent tiny particles from causing any harm to the eyes.

LIFE JACKET; this is a protective clothing device used for the prevention of harmful chemical substances from coming in contact with the skin or body.

FIRE EXTINQUISHER; this is a personal protective device used against the outbreak of disaster associated with fire.

SAFETY GLOOVES; this is protective glove for the covering of the hand against all hazardous or harmful substances on the hand.

SAFETY HAT; this is protective covering for the head against injuries and hard equipment from damaging the head skull.

AIR PURIFYING RESPIRATOR; this is a respirator that purifies the air incase it has been contaminated. Respirators such as “gas mask” and particulate

respirator filter chemicals and gases or airborne particles


Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve problem or perform a specific function. Technologies can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery and procedures. Technologies importantly affect human as well as other animal species ability to adapt to their natural environment.
The word technology comes from the Greek words, technologia and from techne, meaning art, skill, and craft. The term can either be applied generally or to a specific areas; for instance, construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. For the purpose of the above course of study (computer in education), we would concentrate more on information and communications technology (ICT).
ICT (information and communications technology-or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing; radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning. ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. The term is somewhat more common outside of the United States.

The use of ICT makes ongoing data collection, data consumption, data based decision-making a more genuine and important proposition, and it can keep these important aspects of analyzing from monopolizing teacher’s time. Modern information and communication technologies have created a “global village”, in which people can communicate with others across the world as if they were living next room. For this reason, ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technology affects societies. Previous research found that the use of ICT substantially facilitated collecting, magazine, and analyzing educational data (McIntire, 2007; mc leod, 2005; pierce 2005, wayman 2005).
Therefore technology enhanced assessment (TEA) would likely support data analysis, but applying technology to other aspects of data computing will enhance the implementation of those other components as well. Many large organizations have large amounts of data which has been collected and stored in massive data sets which needs be processed and analyzed to provide business intelligence, improve products and services for customers, or to meet other internal data processing requirements by which technical processes are adopted. For example, internet companies need to process data collected by web crawlers as well as logs, click data, and other information generated by web services.

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusion and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science and social sciences domains.
Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather that purely descriptive purposes. Business intelligence covers data analysis that lies heavily on aggregation, focusing on business information.

Data analysis and computation is a process that uses technological software within which several phases can be differentiated.
Data clearing;
Data clearing is an important procedure during which data are inspected, and erroneous data are if necessary, preferable and possibly corrected. Data clearing can be done during the stage of data entering. If it is done, it is important that no subject decision can be made.
The guiding principle provided by Ader (ref) i.e. during subsequent manipulations of the data, information should always be cumulatively retrievable in other words; it should be always be possible to undo any data alterations. Therefore, it is important not to throw information away at any stage in the data clearing phase. All information should be saved (i.e., when altering variables, both the original values and the new variables should be kept either in duplicate data set or under a different variable name), all alteration to the data set should be carefully and clearly documented, for instance in a syntax or a log.

Using technology to compute and analyze data is a process by technological means; computer programs are used to enter data and summaries, analyze or other wise convert data into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analyzing, sorting, summarizing, calculating, disseminating and storing data, because data are most useful when well presented and actually informative. Data processing system are often referred to as information systems
The term data processing system and information system are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversion; data processing system typically manipulate raw data into information and likewise information systems typically take raw data as imput to produce information output.



Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature. Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions.

The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwin’s work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.
Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we could adequately describe these factors. In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner’s view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence were lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes.
The first use of the term “emotional intelligence” is usually attributed to Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985.However, prior to this, the term “emotional intelligence” had appeared in Leuner (1966).]Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990), and Daniel Goleman (1995). The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000.
Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006)] to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ, that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004). The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI.

There are five dimensions of Emotional Intelligence , which includes; self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy and social skills.
Self-awareness is the ability to understand our feelings, and abilities in terms of strengths and weaknesses. He is able to know why he feels this way, and can see whether he is being reasonable or not.
Self-management is the ability to manage our feelings. When a person is extremely angry, and yet can exercise self-control and conquer his anger, that is an example of good self-management.
A manager who knows how to control his temper can go very far in his chosen professional.
Self-motivation refers to the ability to motivate ourselves.
A person with strong drive to succeed, able to sustain the motivation throughout the years, and maintain a positive attitude has strong self-motivation. Many successful persons share this characteristic.
It is important for a parent to teach the skill of self motivation to his children. Children who can motivate themselves to study hard will have a brighter future. Children who can motivate themselves to save money will never get into uncontrollable debt.
Empathy is the ability to aware of the feelings of others and the ability to understand why they feel this way. Empathy allows us to leverage diversity and see things from different perspectives.
A successful businessman must have empathy. He has to see things from different angles. That enables him to find a win-win solution to benefit all stakeholders.
Social skills
Social skills refer to the ability to handle a group of people. If you have good social skills, you are able to change the emotions of others. Many charismatic leaders are able to swing the mood of the listeners. They are able to arouse anger and influence change.
Social skills also measure the ability to manage conflict.


They can be applied to research by adopting the emotional intelligence test which can be undertaken by anyone whether online or manually.
Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006)to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ, that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004). The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI.

While emotional intelligence is not a measurable intelligence, it does affect our success and achievements in life. Those who cannot manage emotions, especially their own emotions, are not able to make wise decisions.



The term white-collar worker refers to a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work, in contrast with a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor. Typically white collar work is performed in an office or cubicle.

The term refers to the white dress shirts of male office workers common through most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries Western countries as opposed to the blue shirts, uniforms or cover-alls of manual or service workers.
The term “white collar” is credited to Upton Sinclair, an American writer, in relation to modern clerical, administrative and management workers during the 1930s, though references to “easy work and a white collar” appear as early as 1911. Examples of its usage in the 1920s include a 1923 Wall Street Journal article that reads, “Movement from high schools to manual labor in steel plants is unusual, as boys formerly sought white collar work.”
Formerly a minority in the agrarian and early industrial societies, white-collar workers have become a majority in industrialized countries due to modernization and exportation of manufacturing jobs.
The blue collar/white collar descriptors as it pertains to work dress may no longer be an accurate descriptor as office attire has broadened beyond a white shirt and tie. Employees in office environments may wear a variety of colors, may dress business-casual or wear casual clothes all together. In addition work task have blurred. “White-collar” employees may perform “blue-collar” tasks (or vice versa). An example would be a restaurant manager who may wear more formal clothing yet still assist with cooking food or taking customers’ orders or a construction worker who also performs desk work.

Blue Collar vs White Collar
Up to this day, there is confusion in discerning blue from white collar jobs. There has been some stigma attached to some, most especially to blue collar jobs. Nevertheless, both job types have their own set of pros and cons.
Traditionally, white collar jobs were named as such because these jobs originally required the worker to wear a shirt that is colored white either with a tie or without one. These jobs are often those that require the employee to wear a tie and work within the safe confines of the four walls of their offices, stores, schools and the like. Nevertheless, it can be safely said that the era of wearing the traditional white shirt and tie has already faded away. Still, many professionals like doctors and lawyers still don their ties and perhaps couple it with a white coat (especially for the medical doctors) to give an impression of a more serious stance.
On the contrary, blue collar jobs are not necessarily jobs that require the worker to wear blue shirts or polo. It is rather an expression which emphasizes that these employees work in a non-management position like those jobs that may involve workers becoming dirtier because of physically working a little harder. Often, these are the jobs that require protection clothing. So, perhaps the confusion sets in when one would label being a doctor as a blue collar job because most of them wear a doctor’s coat or mask for protection. Medical doctors are white collar workers! Blue collar workers are the auto mechanics, drivers, and factory employees.
Unfortunately, there is an undeniable presence of a stigma for blue collar jobs. People often become too judgmental and say that these jobs are just plain ‘dirty,’ literally. Even if most of these jobs are more laborious, not to mention dangerous for the employee because of the workplace they report to, this does not always hold true to all cases.
Conversely, white collar jobs have a better working environment that are usually cleaner and cooler. These are the corporate jobs that often have a good basic monthly pay. As a result, many professionals who hold a degree end up with a white collar job while those who didn’t finish college will eventually end up in ‘just’ a blue collar job. Yet again, this is not applicable to all situations. Also, middle class workers have been linked to blue collar while the upper class workers have been connected to white collar. Fortunately for blue collar jobs, the truth about receiving a higher pay for their white collar counterpart is not always true. In several instances, they even end up receiving a higher pay than the white collar workers.
1. White collar jobs are made synonymous to professionals who obtained higher degrees and education.
2. White collar jobs are linked to the generally higher paying type of jobs.
3. White collar jobs often have a cleaner of ‘better’ workplaces.
4. White collar jobs are more corporate and managerial while blue collar jobs are often non management but actual physical labor type of jobs.
Although dress codes have changed significantly over the years, many jobs are still defined by the traditional work shirts worn by those who perform them. Workers who primarily perform manual labor or other hands-on work often wear blue work shirts, for example. Jobs traditionally held by women, such as teaching or secretarial work, are considered to be pink collar jobs. A white collar job is typically associated with clerical, sales or managerial occupations. The traditional dress code for such work is often a white button-down dress shirt and tie.
Back in the days when the American economy was primarily agrarian, white collar jobs accounted for less than 20% of the total workforce. Today, the number of people who hold a white collar job is closer to 60%. As technology improves in a given industry, there is often a shift from blue collar workers who service the machinery to white collar workers who supervise and manage production. A white collar job is quite often associated with management, even if the employee’s actual job duties are more hands-on than supervisory.

White collar workers can be used in research when the case study or subject matter is aasociated with white collar crimes. It can be summarily discourse as investigating and gathering of data. White-collar crime is a financially motivated, economic, non-violent crime committed for illegal monetary gain. Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime initially was defined by Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as “a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation” (1939). Sutherland was a proponent of Symbolic Interactionism, and believed that criminal behavior was learned from interpersonal interaction with others. White-collar crime, therefore, overlaps with corporate crime because the opportunity for fraud, bribery, elaborate ponzi schemes, insider trading, embezzlement, computer crime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identity theft, and forgery are more available to white-collar employees.
The term white-collar crime only dates back to 1939. Professor Edwin Hardin Sutherland was the first to coin the term, and hypothesize white-collar criminals attributed different characteristics and motives than typical street criminals. Mr. Sutherland originally presented his theory in an address to the American Sociological Society in attempt to study two fields, crime and high society, which had no previous empirical correlation. He defined his idea as “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation” (Sutherland, 1949). Many denote the invention of Sutherland’s idiom to the explosion of U.S business in the years following the Great Depression. Sutherland noted that in his time, “less than two percent of the persons committed to prisons in a year belong to the upper-class.” His goal was to prove a relation between money, social status, and likelihood of going to jail for a white-collar crime, compared to more visible, typical crimes. Although the percentage is a bit higher today, numbers[which?] still show a large majority of those in jail are poor, “blue-collar” criminals, despite efforts to crack down on white-collar, and corporate crime. The introduction of white-collar crime was a relatively new issue to criminology at that time. He was urging other criminologists to stop focusing on the socially and economically disadvantaged. The types of individuals who committed these crimes lived successfully and were respected by society in general-also criminologists; because these criminals were held to such a high regard, these individuals were given a blind eye to the crimes they committed.
Other fiscal laws were passed in the years prior to Sutherland’s studies including antitrust laws in the 1920s, and social welfare laws in the 1930s. After the Depression, people went to great lengths to rebuild their financial security, and it is theorized this led many hard workers, who felt they were underpaid, to take advantage of their positions.
Much of Sutherland’s work was to separate and define the differences in blue collar street crimes, such as arson, burglary, theft, assault, rape and vandalism, which are often blamed on psychological, associational, and structural factors. Instead, white-collar criminals are opportunists, who over time learn they can take advantage of their circumstances to accumulate financial gain. They are educated, intelligent, affluent, confident individuals, who were qualified enough to get a job which allows them the unmonitored access to often large sums of money. Many also use their intelligence to con their victims into believing and trusting in their credentials. Many do not start out as criminals, and in many cases never see themselves as such.



The Two-Factor Model of Personality is a widely used psychological factor analysis measurement of personality, behavior and temperament. It most often consists of a matrix measuring the factor of introversion and extroversion with some form of people versus task orientation.
Anciently, Galen mapped the Four Temperaments to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet taken from the Four Elements. Eventually, it was observed:
• The sanguine temperament showed quick, impulsive and relatively brief reactions. (hot/wet; air)
• The phlegmatic temperament was characterized by a longer response-delay, but the response was also short-lived. (cold/wet; water)
• The choleric temperament manifested a short response time-delay, but the response was sustained for a relatively long time. (hot/dry; fire)
• The melancholic temperament (Also called “Melancholy”) exhibited a long response time-delay, and the response was sustained at length, if not, seemingly, permanently. (cold/dry; earth).
Therefore, it was evident that the sanguine and choleric shared a common trait: quickness of response (corresponding to “heat”), while the melancholic and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response (coldness). The melancholic and choleric, however, shared a sustained response (dryness), and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived response (wetness). That meant, that the choleric and melancholic both would tend to hang on to emotions like anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger (like the sanguine, with the difference being that the sanguine cools off); while the melancholic would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. Also, the melancholic and sanguine would be sort of “opposites”, as the choleric and phlegmatic, since they have opposite traits.
These are the basis of the two factors that would define temperament in the modern theory.
According to Kagan, (conventionally):
temperament refers to stable behavioral and emotional reactions that appear early and are influenced in part by genetic constitution.
Temperament is perhaps what Kagan is best known for. He began his work on temperament after his research in Guatemala. Kagan primarily focused on children’s fear and apprehension. He created two types of temperament; inhibited and uninhibited. Inhibited refers to a shy, timid, and fearful profile of a child, whereas uninhibited refers to the appearance of bold, sociable and outgoing behaviours. In 2008, Kagan and several other researchers conducted a study to examine if behavioral inhibition in adulthood can be predicted by certain behavioral characteristics in infants. The research hypothesized that the frequency of infant reactivity based on motor and crying dimensions is predictive of behavioral inhibition. As a result of his ground breaking work on temperament, we know that these characteristics have the ability to influence later behavior depending on how they interact with the environment. Kagan also believed that there is no guarantee of an indefinitely stable profile considering environmental factors are always changing and that both genes and environmental factors influence a child’s temperament
Although emotion is not what Kagan is known for, he did bring some work into this field. Kagan proposed that emotion is a psychological phenomenon controlled by brain states and that specific emotions are products of context, the person’s history and biological make-up. Kagan also explained emotion as occurring in four dinstinct phases. The first phase is the brain state, which is created by an incentive, the second stage is the detection of changes in bodily movement.The third stage is the appraisal of a change in bodily feeling, and the last stage is where there are observable changes in facial expression and muscle tension. These emotions vary in magnitude and usually differ across ages and when expressed in different contexts. Kagan questioned relying on individual’s verbal statements of their feelings. He provided several reasons for this. Firstly, he argued that the English language does not have enough words to describe all emotional states. Secondly, the words to explain emotional states do not convey the differences in the quality or the severity of it. Lastly, you cannot translate emotional words from one language to another accurately. In addition, Kagan argued that research in emotion studies should be free of ambiguous and coded terms, and this emphasis on specificity remains a recurring theme in his current research on emotion.


Positivism is a philosophical approach which holds that our sensory experiences are the exclusive source of valid information about the world. This philosophical approach had its origin in the natural sciences where positivism arose as a result of the need to order experience in such a way that it is possible to verify and replicate them by other workers. This suggests that the positivist cannot have recourse to any supernatural or abstract forces which are by definition outside his direct experience. Once the study of society adopts a positive approach, it could assume the significance of a universal religion in that it offers the ultimate understanding of the highest order of reality known to man. In other words, positivism has the central thesis that science can only concern itself. Science can only concern itself with empirical questions and not with normative questions. Empirical questions are questions about how things are in reality.
Positivism holds that, since we cannot investigate such things as moral norms with our senses, we could keep away from normative questions; we cannot justify our tastes scientifically. Science can be describe how things are, and experimentally or by some other measurement, discover the association of causes which explain why things are as they are. “The research worker can, given his knowledge of contemporary associations of causes, forecast possible developments in the future from given proportions. But science cannot from “is” statements draw conclusions about ‘should’ statements. Ideally, science is value-free, neutral, impartial and objective. When the scientist gives valuations, expressing ‘should’ statements, he is no longer a scientist, but possibly a politician. (Holt-Jensen, 1980)”.
Another major aspect of positivism is its emphasis on the unity of science. Scientific status is guaranteed by a common experience of reality, a common scientific language and a method ensures that observations can be repeated. Since science has a unified method, there can only be one comprehensive science. The common method is the hypothetic-deductive method and the model discipline is physis. The language which will make a unification of science possible is the physical language or thing language. The ultimate aim is, in the words of Rudolf Carnap, to construct ‘all science, including psychology, on the basis of physis, so that theoretical terms are definable by those of physis. The poles and the system of latitude and longitude are the only special definition which must be made before pursing geographical research. It follows from this that disciplines are to be distinguish from each other by their object of study, and not by their method.(Gregory 1978; p27), Holt-Jensen, 1980;77.
The origins of positivism are trace by many to the French nineteenth century social philosopher Auguste Comte. The concept began as a polemical weapon against the negative philosophy prevalent before the French Revolution. This according to Holt-Jensen (1980-77) “was a romantic and speculative tradition which was more concerned with emotional than with practical questions and which sought to change society by considering utopian alternative to existing situations. The positivists regarded such speculation as ‘negative’ since it was neither constructive nor practical; it showed that philosophy was an ‘immature’ science. Philosophers, like scientist, should not concern themselves with such speculative matter, but should study things they could get to grips with: material object and given circumstances. This approach was to be recommended as ‘the positive approach’. Comte himself wanted to direct the development of society, but stated that the nature of positivism is not to destroy but to organize.” An organized development should replace the disorder created by the revolution. Free speculation, or systematic doubt, as defined by Rene Descartes (1596-1650), was identified by comte as the metaphysical principle’. The word metaphysic derived from the works of Aristotle as an expression for the chapters which followed the physical (or empirical) parts of his work. Metaphysic was later redefined as that which lies outside our sense perceptions or is independent of them. Positivists regarded metaphysical questions as unscientific. Comte held the metaphysical principle (systematic doubt) responsible for the French Revolution, which had started in emotional enthusiasm, to tear down the feudal stricture of society, but had ended in despotism. In a positive society, scientific knowledge would replace free speculation or make it unnecessary.
The positive approach has been borrowed by geographers from the natural sciences as far back as the late nineteenth century, but it is during the last three and half decades that positivism in geography took a strong root among those working in the social science areas. A positivist approach in geography is reflected in the discussion of human behaviour in terms of analogies drawn from the natural sciences. For example, human migration is discussed in terms of Newton’s laws of gravity (Haggest, et al, 1977:23). Thus, a large proportion of geographical analysis since the 1960’s has attempted to explain patterns of human behaviour with neat law like statements (Haggett, 1977:23). In order words, the positivist philosophy has played a major role not only in stimulation research but also in explaining the spatial distribution of phenomena.


Positivist science is built on the verification principle. To know that something is true is to know and to accept the method of substantiating its truth. Thus verification implies a methodology. One accepts that a statement is true only because one accepts that the method is of establishing its veracity is valid. This indicates that the positivist conception of science must incorporate an accepted methodology. As pointed out by Johnston (1986:19-20), the positivist methodology goes under a large variety of titles including, simply the scientific method.


Man has always attempted to order and explain his experience. Faced with complicated events over time, efforts have constantly been made by man to manipulate his experience into patterns which are meaningful to us. Generally, four major systems or ordering experience are now existence. First, there is the theological order which provides explanation of experiences which are intrinsically as valid as those produced by other system. Theology has from historical times been very successful in answering questions and reducing anxiety in many societies. All cultures have theological systems and in all of them, theology appears earlier than other formal system of thought. However, theological order is not empirically oriented. Consequently, the existence of the relationship which theological order builds between constructs to explain events cannot be tested by inspection or examination. (Alber et al, 1971:15). This indicates that one either believes that such relationships exist or does not exist. Thus theological order is non-existent if one does not believe. It is only in situations when theological order is believe that its existence is meaningful as a form of explanation in any society. Today, the significance of the theological order has decline remarkably from its dominant role during the early medieval period in the western world.

Secondly, aesthetic and emotional order is another system of ordering experience. This form of explanation is generally individualistic and informal. Thus, each individual is at the centre of his own continuum and builds his own network or artistic and emotional links. However there are situations in own network or emotional links. However there are situations in which aesthetic value systems can be highly formalized, for example, the dominance of a period by a particular style of art or music. Despite this, the individualist characteristic of aesthetic and emotional order is unique because people cannot be force to like a particular music or how tghey should feel about certain experiences. Thus, the informal nature of emotional and aesthetic order makes it difficult to identify, yet, it exists and therefore has a role to play in the ordering of our experiences.

Thirdly, common sense is the third ordering system and it is used by the theologian, artist and the scientist. In some ways, common sense is related to emotion because what one considers to be common sense depends upon ones’ prejudice. However, the distinction between common sense and emotions still exist. Common sense order arises from living in a world of experience and adapting to it. Behaviour patterns associated with common sense are learned only by practice or by listening to ones’ elders’ discussion of their experiences and trying to draw analogies between what happened previously and experiences we are likely to encounter in the future. (Alber et al, 1971). The common sense mode of ordering experience has some weakness, two of which are notable. In the first place it tends to be useful only within specific culture. For example, it is well known that folk wisdom is adapted to folk society, but it may be negative assets in non-folk situations. Secondly, the common sense mode cannot be transmitted efficiently. Thus, when certain common sense behaviour pattern is to be inculcated very quickly experience will not do so as time is required to transmit it. Despite the limitations of the common sense mode of ordering experience, there is no doubt that it has played a major role in the existence and development of many societies.

Finally, science is the fourth mode of ordering experience and it hold a dominant place in contemporary forms of ordering experiences in most parts of the world especially in the developed world. Science like the other systems noted above, attempts to explain our experiences. Today, science, is highly formalized and institutionalized .science, unlike the other systems noted above incorporates formal sub-systems for producing change and for verifying the existence of the relationships it articulates. In order words, science has some rather stringent verification procedures. Thus, a good scientist will not accept the articulation of a relationship without some experiences which verify its existence to his satisfaction. Similarly, he cannot reject an accepted assertion of a relationship until an alternative is available which can be replaced. The one being rejected and do more besides.(Alber, et al, 1971:19). Another indicator of the institutionalization which adds strength to science is that the answers it produces are replicable. In view of the fact that answers to questions in science are accepted only after testing, far more agreement can exist about answers than is possible in other ordering modes. Thus, one scientist can accept another’s’ assertions about certain patterns of relationships only after he has replicated the experiences which led his colleague those assertions. Finally, science, unlike the other modes of explanation has considerable adaptive capacity. It can change its internal structure since once better answers to the same questions are found, the old answers are discarded. Thus, science is adaptable while others are rigid. This makes science viable in the rapidly changing world which it creates.

Abler, R, J.S Adams and P.R. Gould (1971) spatial organization; the Geographers’ view of the world. Englewood cliffs N.J

Alao, N. (1978) ‘Geography in Nigerian universities’ The Nigerian Geographical Journal, Vol. 2. pp. 3137.


Motivation is a term that refers to a process that elicits, controls, and sustains certain behaviors. Motivation is a group of phenomena which affect the nature of an individual’s behaviour, the strength of the behaviour, and the persistence of the behaviour. For instance: An individual has not eaten, he or she feels hungry, and as a response he or she eats and diminishes feelings of hunger. Motivation is a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature of an individual’s behaviour, the strength of the behaviour, and the persistence of the behaviour. There are many approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social. It’s the crucial element in setting and attaining goals—and research shows you can influence your own levels of motivation and self-control. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.
Motivation concepts
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic Motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather working towards an external reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
• attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy,
• believe they have the skill that will allow them to be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck),
• are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.
Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation. It is widely believed that motivation performs two functions. First one is often referred to the energetic activation component of the motivation construct. The second one is directed at a specific behaviour and makes reference to the orientation directional component. Motives can be divided into two types: external and internal. Internal motives are considered as the needs that every human being experience, while external indicate the presence of specific situations where these needs arise. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives.
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. For those children who received no extrinsic reward, Self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs.
Motivational theories
Incentive theory
A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively.
Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behavior differ from the hypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency or magnitude of that response, therefore the cognitive approach is certainly the way forward as in 1973 Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response. From this perspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant.
Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerr notes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals.
Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner and literalized by behaviorists, especially by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, to mean that a person’s actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.
Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli “attract”, to use the term above, a person towards them. As opposed to the body seeking to reestablish homeostasis is pushing it towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. For instance, a person knows that eating food, drinking water, or gaining social capital will make them happier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment. The lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst.
Escape-seeking dichotomy model
Escapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need to breakaway from a daily life routine whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn, gain some inner benefits through travelling. Both motivations have some interpersonal and personal facets for example individuals would like to escape from family problems (personal) or from problems with work colleagues (interpersonal). This model can also be easily adapted with regard to different studies.
Drive-reduction theory
There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive’s strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat.
Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as having a “desire” to eat, making the drive a homuncular being—a feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this “small man” and his desires.
In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for “tasty” food, which combine with drives for “food” in order to explain cooking render it hard to test.
Cognitive dissonance theory
Suggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have been preferable. His feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with his action of purchasing the item. The difference between his feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so he seeks to reassure himself.
While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.
Need theories
Need hierarchy theory
The content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Abraham Maslow and the two- factor theory from Hertzberg. Maslow’s theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation.
The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the Hierarchy of needs consistent of five hierarchic classes. It shows the complexity of human requirements. According to him, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs such as Physiological and Safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to be addressed. We can relate Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. For example, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs; according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has to remember that not everyone will be satisfied by the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. The basic requirements build the first step in his pyramid. If there is any deficit on this level, the whole behavior of a human will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Subsequently we do have the second level, which awake a need for security. Basically it is oriented on a future need for security. After securing those two levels, the motives shift in the social sphere, which form the third stage. Psychological requirements consist in the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy comprise the self- realization So theory can be summarized as follows:
• Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not.
• Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex.
• The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.
• The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.
The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:
• Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.)
• Safety/Security/Shelter/Health
• Belongingness/Love/Friendship
• Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement
• Self actualization
Hertzberg’s two-factor theory
Frederick Hertzberg’s two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they don’t lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but “respect for me as a person” is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.
He distinguished between:
• Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and
• Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.
The name Hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not make you healthier, but absence can cause health deterioration.
The theory is sometimes called the “Motivator-Hygiene Theory” and/or “The Dual Structure Theory.”
Herzberg’s theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction.
Alderfer’s ERG theory
Alderfer, expanding on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow’s social need and the external component of Maslow’s esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs’ an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow’s esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization.
Self-determination theory
Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslow’s hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of “autopilot” for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness.

Broad theories
The latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT). Integrating theories of motivation. Introduced in a 2007 Academy of Management Review article, it synthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects of several other major motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, Drive Theory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. The original researchers note that, in an effort to keep the theory simple, existing theories to integrate were selected based on their shared attributes, and that these theories are still of value, as TMT does not contain the same depth of detail as each individual theory. However, it still simplifies the field of motivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another.
Achievement Motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. Especially it integrates formerly separated approaches as Need for Achievement with, for example, social motives like dominance. The Achievement Motivation Inventory is based on this theory and assesses three factors (in 17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success.
Cognitive theories
Goal-setting theory
Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal’s efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal.
Models of behavior change
Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action.


The following are the list of officiating officials in a swimming sport;
The Referee is for overseeing and administering the event. He will verify decisions made by fellow judges and will make a final ruling if an appeal has been made.
The starter is responsible for starting the race and is in charge of the swimmers once the Referee has given him instructions to begin the race.
There are 8 timers one for each swimmer. They record the time for the swimmer who is swimming in the lane they are in charge of.
Chief Timer
He verifies the electronically recorded times, after he has checked with the timers.
Finish Judge
He decides and reports on what positions the swimmers finished in.
Stroke Judges
There are 4 stroke judges and they watch the swimmers to verify that the swimmers are performing the stroke in a legal manner.
Turn Judges
They verify that the swimmer has made a legal turn.


The list of the various types of medals awarded in a swimming sports includes; Awards – Gold, Silver and Bronze
Only two swimmers per country are allowed to compete in any individual swimming event. Some countries might not have any entries in some events or might have only one entry, all based on how many of their swimmers achieved Olympic qualifying times. Each country is allowed to enter one relay team; the swimmers on that relay team might change between the preliminary heats and the finals.
• Each Olympic swimming heat has a maximum of eight swimmers, but there can be multiple heats for any event.
• There are preliminaries in the 50m, 100m and 200m distances, followed by the top 16 moving to two semi-final heats, with the winner of each semi-final plus the next 6 fastest moving to the finals.
• In the relays and longer individual events the eight fastest finishers in the preliminary heats move straight to the finals.
• In the finals, it is simple. The fastest swimmer gets the gold medal, second gets the silver medal, and third gets the bronze medal.
• Finish times are taken to the hundredth (.00). Because of this, ties could (and do) occur if multiple swimmers finish a race with identical times. If a tie occurs in a preliminary (a tie for 16th) or semi-final (a tie for 8th) that would cause more than the appropriate number of swimmers to advance to the next round, a swim-off occurs between the tied swimmers.


Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.The “need to do something for recreation” is an essential element of human biology and psychology.Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be “fun”. The term recreation implies participation to be healthy refreshing mind and body. The term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of “refreshment or curing of a sick person”,[3] and derived from Old French, in turn from Latin (re: “again”, creare: “to create, bring forth, beget.
Fitness may relate to:
• Physical fitness, a general state of good health, usually as a result of exercise and nutrition
• Fitness approximation, model of the fitness function to choose smart search steps in Evolutionary algorithms including
• Fitness and figure competition, a form of physique training, related to bodybuilding.
• In mathematics and computer science, the degree to which a given solution is optimized; see optimization (mathematics or Fitness function
• Fitness (biology), an individual’s ability to propagate its genes.
• FitNesse, a web server, a wiki, and a software testing tool.
• Fitness (magazine), a women’s magazine, focusing on health and exercise.

Leisure as a prerequisite
Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, work, sleep, social duties, and leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, and increased commercialization of recreational offerings. While one perception is that leisure is just “spare time”, time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. This direction of thought has even been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, and a reward in itself, and “leisure life” reflects the values and character of a nation. Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Play, recreation and work
Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, which is usually the term for children’s recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities that reflect the realities of adult life. It has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into socially acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, and providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant..A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to “recharge the battery” so that work performance is improved. Work, an activity generally performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can also be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at an individual level, over time recreational activity may become work, and vice-versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, and at another a recreation there is a lot more to do.
Recreational activities
Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction.Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, and useful for society or detrimental. A list of typical activities could be almost endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, gardening, hunting, hobbies, sports, studies, and travel. Not all recreational activities can be considered wise, healthy, or socially acceptable or useful—examples are gambling, drinking, or delinquent activities. Recreational drugs are being used to enhance the recreational experience, a wide-ranging and controversial subject as some drugs are accepted or tolerated by society within limits, others not and declared illegal.
Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are specifically attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation, maintenance, and organization, and whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy; it has been estimated that the outdoor recreation sector alone contributes $730 billion annually to the U.S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs.

Organized recreation

Many recreational activities are organized, typically by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, and commercial enterprises. Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, and Disney World.
Health and recreation
Recreation has many health benefits, and, accordingly, recreational therapy has been developed to take advantage of this effect. Such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, and in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases. Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, and the risk of osteoporosis and of cancer, most significantly in men that of colon and prostate, and in women that of the breast; however, not all malignancies are reduced as outdoor recreation has been linked to a higher risk of melanoma. Extreme adventure recreation naturally carries its own hazards.
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans, it is the general condition of a person’s mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”).The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Although this definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as having a lack of operational value and the problem created by use of the word “complete”, it remains the most enduring. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.
The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the “health triangle”. The WHO’s 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion furthered that health is not just a state, but also “a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.”
Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are delivered by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term “healthy” is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person’s surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background, lifestyle, and economic and social conditions; these are referred to as “determinants of health”.