DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION; POL 450.1


COURSE OUTLINE

1. CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT, ITS INDICATORS AND MEASUREMENT USING VARIOUS PERSPERTIVE OF THE LIBERAL AND MAXISM ORIENTATIONS;
2. CONCEPT OF UNDER-DEVELOPMENT, ITS INDICATORS AND MEASUREMENT USING VARIOUS PERSPERTIVE OF THE LIBERAL AND MAXISM ORIENTATIONS;
3. THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION; ITS DEFINITIONS, EMERGENCE, STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES.

4. SOME SELECTED THEORIES IN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;

5. THE STATE AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRACTION;
6. INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES IN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
7. THE ROLE OF POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTS IN DEVELOPMENT;
8. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
9. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR;
10. THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
(PART 1)
-GLOBALISATION;

PREFACE

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JOECRACK CONCEPT

1. CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT, ITS INDICATORS AND MEASUREMENT USING VARIOUS PERSPERTIVE OF THE LIBERAL AND MAXISM ORIENTATIONS;
Development may refer to:
Land use
• Green development, a concept that includes consideration of community-wide or regional environmental implications
• Land development, altering the landscape in any number of ways
• Mixed-use development, the practice of allowing more than one type of use in a building or set of buildings
• Real estate development, a business encompassing activities from renovation to the purchase of raw land
• Subdivision (land), or a development, a piece of land divided from a larger portion for sale or further development
• Urban planning, or development, integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve communities
• Transit-oriented development, a mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport
Science and technology
• Artificial development, an area of computer science and engineering
• Development (differential geometry), the process of rolling one surface over another
• Development (journal), an academic journal in developmental biology
• Development (topology), a countable collection of open coverings
• Developmental biology, the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop
• Drug development, the entire process of bringing a new drug or device to the market
• Embryogenesis, or development, the process by which the embryo is formed
• Energy development, the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources
• Human development (biology), the process of growing to maturity
o Prenatal development, the process in which a human embryo or fetus gestates during pregnancy
o Child development, the biological, psychological, and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence
o Youth development, the process through which adolescents acquire the cognitive, social, and emotional skills and abilities required to navigate life
• Neural development, the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system
• Photographic development, the chemical means by which exposed photographic film or paper is processed to produce a visible image
• Research and development, work aiming to increase knowledge
• Software development, the development of a software product
• Tooth development or odontogenesis
• Web development, work involved in developing a web site
Social science
• Development studies, social science which addresses issues of concern to developing countries
• Development geography, geography with reference to the standard of living and quality of life of human inhabitants
• Developmental psychology, the scientific study of systematic psychological, emotional, and perception changes over life spans
• Community development, the practices and academic disciplines to improve various aspects of local communities
• Sociocultural evolution, how cultures and societies have changed over time
• Economic development, the economic aspect of social change
• Human development (humanity), an international and economic development paradigm
• Human development theory, a theory that merges older ideas from ecological economics, sustainable development, welfare economics, and feminist economics
• Rural development, actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-Urban neighborhoods, countryside, and remote villages
• Social development, processes of change in societies
• Sustainable development, a pattern of resources use, that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment

International and regional
• Regional development, the provision of aid and other assistance to regions which are less economically developed
o Multilateral development bank
o European Development Fund, an instrument for European Community aid
o Development aid, the provision of assistance to developing countries
• Economic development, the sustained, concerted effort of policymakers and community to promote the standard of living and economic health in a specific area
• Human Development Index, used to rank countries by level of “human development”
• International development, the development of greater quality of life for humans

Business and professional
• Business development, a process of growing a business
• Career development, which as several meanings
• Corporate development, a position in a business
• Development & Commerce Bank (now called RHB Bank)
• Fundraising, soliciting voluntary contributions to an organization or prospective organization
• Training and development, organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings
• Leadership development, activities that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization
• New product development, the complete process of bringing a new product to market
• Organization development, a conceptual, organization-wide effort to increase an organization’s effectiveness and viability
• Personal development or self-help
• Professional development, skills and knowledge attained for both personal development and career advancement

Music
• Development (album), a 2002 nu-metal album by musical group Nonpoint
• Musical development, a compositional process
Other
• Characterisation including character development
• Develop, term used in Chess
• Development of doctrine, a term used by John Henry Newman to describe Catholic teachings
• Development hell, media industry term for when a project is stuck in development
• Development of religion, the various stages in the evolution of any particular religion or religious system
• Driver development program is a program used by racing teams to develop younger drivers
• Components of the “development” phase in film making
o Film finance
o Film budgeting
o Green-light

INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT;
Indicators of development are statistics or yardsticks of measurement, used for comparism between development and non development platforms. It is used to no if development is or has taken place in an area or not.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Agricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land)
Forest area (% of land area)

Agricultural land (% of land area)
Forest area (sq. km)

Agricultural machinery, tractors per 100 sq. km of arable land
Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)
Land area (sq. km)

Agriculture value added per worker (constant 2000 US$)
Land under cereal production (hectares)

Arable land (hectares per person)
Livestock production index (1999-2001 = 100)

Arable land (% of land area)
Permanent cropland (% of land area)

Cereal yield (kg per hectare)
Poverty gap at rural poverty line (%)

Crop production index (1999-2001 = 100)
Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% of rural population)

Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)
Rural population

Fertilizer consumption (kilograms per hectare of arable land)
Rural population (% of total population)

Food production index (1999-2001 = 100)

Aid Effectiveness
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
Net ODA received per capita (current US$)

Contraceptive prevalence (% of women ages 15-49)
Net official development assistance and official aid received (current US$)

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)
Net official development assistance received (current US$)

Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)
Population, female (% of total)

Income share held by lowest 20%
Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)

Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)

Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age (% of children under 5)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)

Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000)
Teenage mothers (% of women ages 15-19 who have had children or are currently pregnant)

Net migration
Vulnerable employment, total (% of total employment)

Net ODA received (% of GNI)

Climate Change
Access to electricity (% of population)
Investment in energy with private participation (current US$)

Agricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land)
Investment in telecoms with private participation (current US$)

Agricultural land (% of land area)
Investment in transport with private participation (current US$)

Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)
Investment in water and sanitation with private participation (current US$)

Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion cubic meters)
Land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area)

Cereal yield (kg per hectare)
Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age (% of children under 5)

CO2 emissions (kt)
Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)

CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000)

CPIA public sector management and institutions cluster average (1=low to 6=high)
Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations)
Notified cases of malaria (per 100,000 people)

Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)
Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)
Population growth (annual %)

Energy use (kt of oil equivalent)
Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million (% of total population)

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)
Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total population)

Forest area (% of land area)
Population, total

Forest area (sq. km)
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population)

GDP (current US$)
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)
Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)
Urban population

Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access)
Urban population (% of total)

Economic Policy & External Debt
Agriculture, value added (% of GDP)
IBRD loans and IDA credits (DOD, current US$)

Cash surplus/deficit (% of GDP)
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP)

Central government debt, total (% of GDP)
Industry, value added (% of GDP)

Current account balance (BoP, current US$)
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)
Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %)

External debt stocks, private nonguaranteed (PNG) (DOD, current US$)
Net ODA received (% of GNI)

External debt stocks, public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) (DOD, current US$)
Net ODA received per capita (current US$)

External debt stocks, short-term (DOD, current US$)
Net official development assistance and official aid received (current US$)

External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$)
Net official development assistance received (current US$)

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)
Portfolio equity, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

GDP (current US$)
Revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP)

GDP growth (annual %)
Royalty and license fees, payments (BoP, current US$)

GDP per capita (current US$)
Royalty and license fees, receipts (BoP, current US$)

GNI, Atlas method (current US$)
Services, etc., value added (% of GDP)

GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$)
Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and income)

GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)
Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

GNI, PPP (current international $)
Trade in services (% of GDP)

Gross capital formation (% of GDP)
Use of IMF credit (DOD, current US$)

Gross savings (% of GDP)
Workers’ remittances and compensation of employees, received (current US$)

Education
Children out of school, primary, female
Progression to secondary school, male (%)

Children out of school, primary, male
Public spending on education, total (% of GDP)

Expenditure per student, primary (% of GDP per capita)
Public spending on education, total (% of government expenditure)

Expenditure per student, secondary (% of GDP per capita)
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary

Expenditure per student, tertiary (% of GDP per capita)
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%)

Gross intake rate in grade 1, female (% of relevant age group)
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

Gross intake rate in grade 1, male (% of relevant age group)
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%)

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)
Repeaters, primary, female (% of female enrollment)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)
Repeaters, primary, male (% of male enrollment)

Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24)
School enrollment, preprimary (% gross)

Persistence to last grade of primary, female (% of cohort)
School enrollment, primary (% gross)

Persistence to last grade of primary, male (% of cohort)
School enrollment, primary (% net)

Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group)
School enrollment, secondary (% gross)

Primary completion rate, male (% of relevant age group)
School enrollment, secondary (% net)

Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)
School enrollment, tertiary (% gross)

Progression to secondary school, female (%)
Trained teachers in primary education (% of total teachers)

Energy & Mining
Alternative and nuclear energy (% of total energy use)
Energy use (kt of oil equivalent)

Combustible renewables and waste (% of total energy)
Fossil fuel energy consumption (% of total)

Energy imports, net (% of energy use)
GDP per unit of energy use (constant 2005 PPP $ per kg of oil equivalent)

Energy production (kt of oil equivalent)
Pump price for diesel fuel (US$ per liter)

Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)
Pump price for gasoline (US$ per liter)

Environment
Access to electricity (% of population)
Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day)

Agricultural methane emissions (% of total)
Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day per worker)

Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions (% of total)
Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

CO2 emissions (kt)
Plant species (higher), threatened

CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)
Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total population)

Fish species, threatened
Water pollution, chemical industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Forest area (% of land area)
Water pollution, clay and glass industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Forest area (sq. km)
Water pollution, food industry (% of total BOD emissions)

GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum)
Water pollution, metal industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area)
Water pollution, other industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Mammal species, threatened
Water pollution, paper and pulp industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters)
Water pollution, textile industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Methane emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent)
Water pollution, wood industry (% of total BOD emissions)

Nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent)

Financial Sector

Bank capital to assets ratio (%)
Money and quasi money growth (annual %)

Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans (%)
Net migration

Claims on central government (annual growth as % of broad money)
Portfolio equity, net inflows (BoP, current US$)

Claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (annual growth as % of broad money)
Private credit bureau coverage (% of adults)

Credit depth of information index (0=low to 6=high)
Public credit registry coverage (% of adults)

Deposit interest rate (%)
Real interest rate (%)

Domestic credit provided by banking sector (% of GDP)
Risk premium on lending (prime rate minus treasury bill rate, %)

Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)
S&P Global Equity Indices (annual % change)

Interest rate spread (lending rate minus deposit rate, %)
Stocks traded, total value (% of GDP)

International migrant stock, total
Stocks traded, turnover ratio (%)

Lending interest rate (%)
Strength of legal rights index (0=weak to 10=strong)

Listed domestic companies, total
Total reserves (includes gold, current US$)

Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$)
Workers’ remittances and compensation of employees, received (current US$)

Market capitalization of listed companies (% of GDP)

Gender
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)
Long-term unemployment, female (% of female unemployment)

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)
Long-term unemployment, male (% of male unemployment)

Children out of school, primary, female
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)

Children out of school, primary, male
Persistence to last grade of primary, female (% of cohort)

Contraceptive prevalence (% of women ages 15-49)
Persistence to last grade of primary, male (% of cohort)

Economically active children, female (% of female children ages 7-14)
Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Economically active children, male (% of male children ages 7-14)
Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)

Economically active children, study and work, female (% of female economically active children, ages 7-14)
Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)

Economically active children, study and work, male (% of male economically active children, ages 7-14)
Primary completion rate, female (% of relevant age group)

Economically active children, work only, female (% of female economically active children, ages 7-14)
Primary completion rate, male (% of relevant age group)

Economically active children, work only, male (% of male economically active children, ages 7-14)
Progression to secondary school, female (%)

Employees, agriculture, female (% of female employment)
Progression to secondary school, male (%)

Employees, agriculture, male (% of male employment)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

Employees, industry, female (% of female employment)
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%)

Employees, industry, male (% of male employment)
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

Employees, services, female (% of female employment)
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%)

Employees, services, male (% of male employment)
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)

Fertility rate, total (births per woman)
Repeaters, primary, female (% of female enrollment)

Gross intake rate in grade 1, female (% of relevant age group)
Repeaters, primary, male (% of male enrollment)

Gross intake rate in grade 1, male (% of relevant age group)
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)
Teenage mothers (% of women ages 15-19 who have had children or are currently pregnant)

Labor participation rate, male (% of male population ages 15+)
Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)

Labor participation rate, total (% of total population ages 15+)
Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)

Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
Unemployment, youth female (% of female labor force ages 15-24)

Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24)

Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15-24)
Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)

Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15-24)
Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment)

Health
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)
Malnutrition prevalence, weight for age (% of children under 5)

Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people)
Maternal mortality ratio (modeled estimate, per 100,000 live births)

Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)
Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)

Contraceptive prevalence (% of women ages 15-49)
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000)

Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)
Notified cases of malaria (per 100,000 people)

Fertility rate, total (births per woman)
Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private expenditure on health)

Health expenditure per capita (current US$)
Population ages 0-14 (% of total)

Health expenditure, public (% of total health expenditure)
Population ages 15-64 (% of total)

Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)
Population ages 65 and above (% of total)

Immunization, DPT (% of children ages 12-23 months)
Population, female (% of total)

Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)
Population growth (annual %)

Improved sanitation facilities (% of population with access)
Population, total

Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access)
Pregnant women receiving prenatal care (%)

Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people)
Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)

Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)

Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)

Life expectancy at birth, total (years)
Teenage mothers (% of women ages 15-19 who have had children or are currently pregnant)

Malnutrition prevalence, height for age (% of children under 5)
Unmet need for contraception (% of married women ages 15-49)

Infrastructure
Air transport, registered carrier departures worldwide
Internet users (per 100 people)

Annual freshwater withdrawals, agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
Mobile and fixed-line telephone subscribers (per 100 people)

Annual freshwater withdrawals, domestic (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people)

Annual freshwater withdrawals, industry (% of total freshwater withdrawal)
Motor vehicles (per 1,000 people)

Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion cubic meters)
Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)

Container port traffic (TEU: 20 foot equivalent units)
Rail lines (total route-km)

Daily newspapers (per 1,000 people)
Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters)

Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)
Renewable internal freshwater resources, total (billion cubic meters)

Fixed broadband Internet subscribers (per 100 people)
Road sector diesel fuel consumption per capita (kt of oil equivalent)

ICT goods exports (% of total goods exports)
Road sector energy consumption (% of total energy consumption)

ICT goods imports (% total goods imports)
Road sector gasoline fuel consumption per capita (kt of oil equivalent)

ICT service exports (% of service exports, BoP)
Roads, paved (% of total roads)

Improved water source, rural (% of rural population with access)
Secure Internet servers (per 1 million people)

Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access)
Vehicles (per km of road)

Internet users

Labor & Social Protection
Employees, agriculture, female (% of female employment)
Labor participation rate, total (% of total population ages 15+)

Employees, agriculture, male (% of male employment)
Long-term unemployment, female (% of female unemployment)

Employees, industry, female (% of female employment)
Long-term unemployment, male (% of male unemployment)

Employees, industry, male (% of male employment)
Long-term unemployment (% of total unemployment)

Employees, services, female (% of female employment)
Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)

Employees, services, male (% of male employment)
Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)

Employment in agriculture (% of total employment)
Unemployment, total (% of total labor force)

Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%)
Unemployment, youth female (% of female labor force ages 15-24)

GDP per person employed (constant 1990 PPP $)
Unemployment, youth male (% of male labor force ages 15-24)

Labor force, total
Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)
Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment)

Labor participation rate, male (% of male population ages 15+)
Vulnerable employment, total (% of total employment)

Poverty
Income share held by fourth 20%
Poverty gap at national poverty line (%)

Income share held by highest 10%
Poverty gap at rural poverty line (%)

Income share held by highest 20%
Poverty gap at urban poverty line (%)

Income share held by lowest 10%
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population)

Income share held by lowest 20%
Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population)

Income share held by second 20%
Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population)

Income share held by third 20%
Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% of rural population)

Poverty gap at $1.25 a day (PPP) (%)
Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population)

Poverty gap at $2 a day (PPP) (%)

Private Sector
Average number of times firms spent in meetings with tax officials
ISO certification ownership (% of firms)

Documents to export (number)
Lead time to export, median case (days)

Documents to import (number)
Lead time to import, median case (days)

Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP)
Logistics performance index: Overall (1=low to 5=high)

Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations)
Merchandise trade (% of GDP)

Export value index (2000 = 100)
Net barter terms of trade index (2000 = 100)

Export volume index (2000 = 100)
New businesses registered (number)

Firms using banks to finance investment (% of firms)
Start-up procedures to register a business (number)

Import value index (2000 = 100)
Tax payments (number)

Import volume index (2000 = 100)
Time required to start a business (days)

Informal payments to public officials (% of firms)
Time to prepare and pay taxes (hours)

Investment in energy with private participation (current US$)
Time to resolve insolvency (years)

Investment in telecoms with private participation (current US$)
Total tax rate (% of commercial profits)

Investment in transport with private participation (current US$)
Trade in services (% of GDP)

Investment in water and sanitation with private participation (current US$)
Value lost due to electrical outages (% of sales)

Public Sector
Cash surplus/deficit (% of GDP)
Military expenditure (% of central government expenditure)

Central government debt, total (% of GDP)
Military expenditure (% of GDP)

CPIA economic management cluster average (1=low to 6=high)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

CPIA policies for social inclusion/equity cluster average (1=low to 6=high)
Revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP)

CPIA public sector management and institutions cluster average (1=low to 6=high)
Tax payments (number)

CPIA structural policies cluster average (1=low to 6=high)
Tax revenue (% of GDP)

Expense (% of GDP)
Time to prepare and pay taxes (hours)

IDA resource allocation index (1=low to 6=high)
Total tax rate (% of commercial profits)

Science & Technology
High-technology exports (current US$)
Royalty and license fees, payments (BoP, current US$)

High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports)
Royalty and license fees, receipts (BoP, current US$)

Patent applications, nonresidents
Scientific and technical journal articles

Patent applications, residents
Technicians in R&D (per million people)

Research and development expenditure (% of GDP)
Trademark applications, direct nonresident

Researchers in R&D (per million people)
Trademark applications, direct resident

Social Development
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)
Prevalence of HIV, male (% ages 15-24)

Economically active children, female (% of female children ages 7-14)
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%)

Economically active children, male (% of male children ages 7-14)
Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%)

Economically active children, study and work, female (% of female economically active children, ages 7-14)
Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%)

Economically active children, study and work, male (% of male economically active children, ages 7-14)
Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%)

Economically active children, total (% of children ages 7-14)
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education (%)

Economically active children, work only, female (% of female economically active children, ages 7-14)
Refugee population by country or territory of asylum

Economically active children, work only, male (% of male economically active children, ages 7-14)
Refugee population by country or territory of origin

Labor participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15+)
Share of women employed in the nonagricultural sector (% of total nonagricultural employment)

Labor participation rate, male (% of male population ages 15+)
Unemployment, female (% of female labor force)

Life expectancy at birth, female (years)
Unemployment, male (% of male labor force)

Life expectancy at birth, male (years)
Vulnerable employment, female (% of female employment)

Prevalence of HIV, female (% ages 15-24)
Vulnerable employment, male (% of male employment)

Urban Development
Improved sanitation facilities, urban (% of urban population with access)
Pump price for diesel fuel (US$ per liter)

Improved water source, urban (% of urban population with access)
Pump price for gasoline (US$ per liter)

Motor vehicles (per 1,000 people)
Road sector diesel fuel consumption per capita (kt of oil equivalent)

Passenger cars (per 1,000 people)
Road sector energy consumption (% of total energy consumption)

PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter)
Road sector gasoline fuel consumption per capita (kt of oil equivalent)

Population in the largest city (% of urban population)
Urban population

Population in urban agglomerations of more than 1 million (% of total population)
Urban population (% of total)

Poverty gap at urban poverty line (%)
Vehicles (per km of road)

Poverty headcount ratio at urban poverty line (% of urban population)

2. CONCEPT OF UNDER-DEVELOPMENT, ITS INDICATORS AND MEASUREMENT USING VARIOUS PERSPERTIVE OF THE LIBERAL AND MAXISM ORIENTATIONS;
Underdevelopment is a term often used to refer to economic underdevelopment, symptoms of which include lack of access to job opportunities, health care, drinkable water, food, education and housing. At the 1948 Conference of FAO the term was already current.
Overview
Underdevelopment takes place when resources are not used to their full socio-economic potential, with the result that local or regional development is slower in most cases than it should be. Furthermore, it results from the complex interplay of internal and external factors that allow less developed countries only a lop-sided development progression. Underdeveloped nations are characterized by a wide disparity between their rich and poor populations, and an unhealthy balance of trade.
Extended overview
The economic and social development of many developing countries has not been even. They have an unequal trade balance which results from their dependence upon primary products (usually only a handful) for their export receipts. These commodities are often (a) in limited demand in the industrialized countries (for example: tea, coffee, sugar, cocoa, bananas); (b) vulnerable to replacement by synthetic substitutes (jute, cotton, etc.); or (c) are experiencing shrinking demand with the evolution of new technologies that require smaller quantities of raw materials (as is the case with many metals). Prices cannot be raised as this simply hastens the use of replacement synthetics or alloys, nor can production be expanded as this rapidly depresses prices. Consequently, the primary commodities upon which most of the developing countries depend are subject to considerable short-term price fluctuation, rendering the foreign exchange receipts of the developing nations unstable and vulnerable. Development thus remains elusive.

History
The world consists of a group of rich nations and a large number of poor nations. It is usually held that economic development takes place in a series of capitalist stages and that today’s underdeveloped countries are still in a stage of history through which the now developed countries passed long ago. The countries that are now fully developed have never been underdeveloped in the first place, though they might have been undeveloped.
Examples of Underdeveloped Countries and Regions

Political map as the Human Development Index.
1. Africa
Africa is the second-largest continent on the planet (after Asia) in both land area and population—with more than 800 million people living in fifty-four countries. With a total land area of more than 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,599 sq mi), Africa accounts for 20% of the land on the planet; its population accounts for one-seventh of the population of earth. It is also the most underdeveloped continent. The explanation for the origins of Africa’s severe underdevelopment is explained by history and much of Africa’s poor performance can be characterized by over 400 years of slave raiding. Slavery has resulted in regional communities and many nations to be both politically and ethnically fragmented. Trade has caused political instability, meaning both political and social unrest leaving a community unfits for pursuing economic development and planning for the future economy of the country. If the slave trades had not occurred, then 72% of the average income gap between Africa and the rest of the world would not exist today.

2. Afghanistan
Afghanistan is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west. The country is split east to west by the Hindu Kush mountain range, rising in the east to heights of 24,000 ft (7,315 m). Afghanistan’s GDP for 2009 was $23.3 billion and annual per capita $800. In 2008 Unemployment was at 35% having a labor force of 15 million split between agriculture 80%, industry 10% and services 10%. Afghanistan’ underdevelopment has been fuelled by an ineffective trade policy meaning products are inefficiently traded and little economic growth is gained. This lack of trade agreements has been created due to pervasive political and military corruption and cultural and religious unrest leaving the country broken and the economy shattered. Gross domestic product had fallen significantly because of loss of labor and capital and disruption of trade and transport. Continuing internal conflict disadvantaged both domestic efforts at reconstruction as well as international aid efforts. The country today however is beginning to make some progress.
3. Latin America
Latin America, as it is most commonly thought as, is made up of the South American nations where the language is derived from Latin, including Spanish, Portuguese and French languages. Latin America is one of the most underdeveloped regions in the world due to their annual per capita income being less than 1,000 USD. Their life expectancies are twenty years less than the developed world as well as infant mortality rates being very high. Malnourishment, homelessness and unemployment are very common in this region as the countries are poor and backward having many communities filled with poverty. Latin America has suffered due to overpopulation, having no capacity to manage the people their situation has only become worse, with increased poverty and homelessness.
Latin America has faced many set backs in their battle for economic development – these included Civil wars, military dictator ships, USA invasions and the rise of the left and centre left governments. Underdevelopment of Latin America has been influenced by the oppression of small countries by their large neighbours and by the exploitation of big cities and ports for the internal sources of food and labour. There have been many negative effects of free trade policies from the 19th Century preventing the development of a national industry and the lack of a strong national wage earning class. The backwardness and poverty of these nations is due to the failure to be economically dependant.
4. South Africa
It is argued that South Africa’s … dualist qualities of a 1st & 2nd economy. The 1st (wealth producing sector) being one that is integrated in the global economy through modern industrialization, mining, agricultural & financial services, and the 2nd a structural manifestation of jimbobway land, underdevelopment & marginalization. With indicators such as GDP/capita at PPP of $11 240 in 2001, placing it as one the 50th wealthiest countries in the world , and on the other hand social indicators that rank it 111th in terms of HDI for the same year.
Some of the causality of the underdevelopment is attributed to the institutionalized apartheid practices in South African politics, society and economics. The reforms that were introduced in 1994 have furthered the increase of inequality and uneven wealth distribution in the nation. As “Hoogeveen and O¨ zler (2005: 15) conclude that ‘Growth has not been pro-poor in South Africa as a whole, and in the instances when poverty declined for certain subgroups, the distributional shifts were still not pro-poor’.” Through the notion of adverse inclusion versus social exclusion du Toit draws attention to the fact that the present dynamics of the nation are not simply a result of being left out of mainstream economy, rather from the terms under which individuals are incorporated, . The individuals who find themselves incorporated are often not those that make up the majority of the population that lives in considerably unfavorable conditions.

THEORIES
1. Modernization Theory
Modernization theory is a socio-economic theory, also known as the Development theory. This highlights the positive role played by the developed world in modernizing and facilitating sustainable development in underdeveloped nations. It is often contrasted with Dependency theory.

The theory of modernization consists of three parts:
• Identification of types of societies, and explanation of how those designated as modernized or relatively modernized differ from others;
• Specification of how societies become modernized, comparing factors that are more or less conducive to transformation.
• Generalizations about how the parts of a modernized society fit together, involving comparisons of stages of modernization and types of modernized societies with clarity about prospects for further modernization.

2. Dependency Theory
Dependency theory is the body of theories by various intellectuals, both from the Third World and the First World, that suggest that the wealthy nations of the world need a peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy. Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they are not integrated into the world system, but because of how they are integrated into the system.
These poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, a destination for obsolete technology, and markets to the wealthy nations, without which they could not have the standard of living they enjoy. First world nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, sport and all aspects of human resource development. Any attempt by the dependent nations to resist the influences of dependency could result in economic sanctions and/or military invasion and control. This is rare, however, and dependency is enforced far more by the wealthy nations setting the rules of international trade and commerce.
Dependency theory first emerged in the 1950s, advocated by Raul Prebisch whose research found that the wealth of poor nations tended to decrease when the wealth of rich nations increased. The theory quickly divided into diverse schools. Some, most notably Andre Gunder Frank, adapted it to Marxism. “Standard” dependency theory differs sharply from Marxism, however, arguing against internationalism and any hope of progress in less developed nations towards industrialization and a liberating revolution. Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile. The American sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein refined the Marxist aspect of the theory, and called it the “world system.”
According to Brazilian social scientist, Theotonio Dos Santos, dependence means a situation in which certain countries economies’ are conditioned by the development & expansion of another to which the former is subject. He goes on to further clarify that the interdependence of two or more economies, and consequently world trade, assumes the form of dependence when dominant countries can create dependency only as a reflection of that expansion, which can have a negative effect on the subordinate’s immediate economy.
INDICATORS OF UNDER-DEVELOPMENT;
These are indicators which tell you that an area is not developing or growing in terms of per capital income. You can say it is the opposite of the indicators of development.
3. THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION; ITS DEFINITIONS, EMERGENCE, STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES.
Development administration is concerned with plans, policies, programmes and projects which focus on nation building and socio-economic development. It aims to achieve socio-economic goals through the talents and expertise of bureaucrats.

Development administration focuses on the results to be achieved rather than the traditionalist view of strict adherence to rules and hierarchy. Strict adherence to rules creates rigidness, delay and procrastination.
• Development per se is oriented towards change in a destined direction. Thus, development administration is change oriented and rejects status quo.
• Every development functions have a goal to be achieved. i.e Economic Development has the goal to improve the quality of life such as better literacy rate, life expectancy and reduction in poverty rates.
• For the goals to be achieved, to relate the means to ends, planning and temporal dimension is a salient feature. Planning aids in deciding the resource required for the goal, the time in which it needs to achieve.
• Development administration has an innovative dimension; it is flexible enough to design new methods, procedures, policies which would save time, increase effectiveness and quality.
• Administrators under this concept are required to be committed to the policies, plans and programmes. The commitment is not necessarily to the political parties, who enacts the policies but to the values that an administrator should upheld in his/her profession.
• Development is ultimately aimed to the people, hence it should accord primacy to the public the administration should be client oriented.
• For the development functions to be effective and for it to be people oriented, participation of people is emphasized in formulating plans, implementation and sharing the benefits derived. Thus Development administration should focus on “planning with people” rather than “planning for people”. It should be people centered rather than production centered. i.e. not in maximizing production, goods and services but to address the needs of people, empower people.

Development administration has two concepts administration of development and administrative development. Administrative development is increasing and improving the capabilities of administrative system. It involves modernization of administrative structure, capabilities of personnel, attitudinal and behavioral changes among the administrators.

4. SOME SELECTED THEORIES IN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;

I. THE LAISSEZ-FAIRE THEORY;
In economics, laissez-faire (English pronunciation: /ˌlɛseɪˈfɛər/ French: [lɛsefɛʁ] is an environment in which transactions between private parties are free from state intervention, including regulations, taxes, tariffs and enforced monopolies. The phrase laissez-faire is French and literally means “let do”, but it broadly implies “let it be”, or “leave it alone.” A laissez-faire state and completely free market has never existed, though the degree of government regulation varies considerably.

Origins of the phrase
According to historical legend, the phrase stems from a meeting in about 1680 between the powerful French finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert and a group of French businessmen led by a certain M. Le Gendre. When the eager mercantilist minister asked how the French state could be of service to the merchants and help promote their commerce, Le Gendre replied simply “Laissez-nous faire” (“Leave us be”, lit. “Let us do”).
The anecdote on the Colbert-Le Gendre meeting was related in a 1751 article in the Journal Oeconomique by the French minister and champion of free trade, René de Voyer, Marquis d’Argenson—which happens to also be the phrase’s first known appearance in print. Argenson himself had used the phrase earlier (1736) in his own diaries, in a famous outburst:
Laissez faire, telle devrait être la devise de toute puissance publique, depuis que le monde est civilisé … Détestable principe que celui de ne vouloir grandir que par l’abaissement de nos voisins! Il n’y a que la méchanceté et la malignité du coeur de satisfaites dans ce principe, et l’intérêt y est opposé. Laissez faire, morbleu! Laissez faire!! (Trans: “Leave it be, that should be the motto of all public powers, as the world is civilized … That we cannot grow except by lowering our neighbors is a detestable notion! Only malice and malignity of heart is satisfied with such a principle and our (national) interest is opposed to it. Leave it be, for heaven’s sake! Leave it be!)
The laissez faire slogan was popularized by Vincent de Gournay, a French intendant of commerce in the 1750s. Gournay was an ardent proponent of the removal of restrictions on trade and the deregulation of industry in France. Gournay was delighted by the Colbert-LeGendre anecdote, and forged it into a larger maxim all his own: “Laissez faire et laissez passer” (‘Let do and let pass’). His motto has also been identified as the longer “Laissez faire et laissez passer, le monde va de lui même!” (“Let do and let pass, the world goes on by itself!”). Although Gournay left no written tracts on his economic policy ideas, he had immense personal influence on his contemporaries, notably the Physiocrats, who credit both the laissez-faire slogan and the doctrine to Gournay.
Before d’Argenson or Gournay, P.S. de Boisguilbert had enunciated the phrase “on laisse faire la nature” (‘let nature run its course’). D’Argenson himself, during his life, was better known for the similar but less-celebrated motto “Pas trop gouverner” (“Govern not too much”). But it was Gournay’s use of the ‘laissez-faire’ phrase (as popularized by the Physiocrats) that gave it its cachet.
In England, a number of “free trade” and “non-interference” slogans had been coined already during the 17th century. But the French phrase laissez faire gained currency in English-speaking countries with the spread of Physiocratic literature in the late 18th century. The Colbert-LeGendre anecdote was relayed in George Whatley’s 1774 Principles of Trade (co-authored with Benjamin Franklin) – which may be the first appearance of the phrase in an English language publication.
Notably, classical economists, such as Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith[10] and David Ricardo, did not use the phrase. Jeremy Bentham used the term, but it was probably James Mill’s reference to the “laissez-faire” maxim (together with “pas trop gouverner”) in an 1824 entry for the Encyclopædia Britannica that really brought the term into wider English usage. With the advent of the Anti-Corn Law League, the term received much of its (English) meaning.
Adam Smith first used the metaphor of an “invisible hand” in his book The Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the unintentional effects of economic self organization from economic self interest. Some have characterized this metaphor as one for laissez-faire, but Smith never actually used the term himself.

II. POPULATION THEORIES;
A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. In sociology, population refers to a collection of human beings. Demography is a social science which entails the statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to human population. There exist numerous population theories which includes;
The Population reduction theory states that there is a plan to depopulate the world through genocide following the basic thesis of National Security Study Memorandum 200.
The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 or 14 February 1766 – 23 or 29 December 1834) was an English scholar, influential in political economy and demography. Malthus popularized the economic theory of rent.
According to Malthusian theory of population, population increases in a geometrical ratio, whereas food supply increases in an arithmetic ratio.
This disharmony would lead to widespread poverty and starvation, which would only be checked by natural occurrences such as disease, high infant mortality, famine, war or moral restraint. His main contribution is in the agricultural sector. According to this theory there are two steps to control the population: preventative and positive checks. Preventative means control in birth rate, and uses of different methods to control birth; and positive checks means natural calamities, war, etc.

His theory was wrong because Malthus only considered two factors when he established his basic graph: food supply and population growth. Other factors such as improvements in technology proved him wrong. He was right at his time but development made him wrong. If it wasn’t for outside influences on population growth and food supply, his mathematical reasoning which proved his theory and was right.
Malthus has become widely known for his theories about population and its increase or decrease in response to various factors. The six editions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population, published from 1798 to 1826, observed that sooner or later population gets checked by famine and disease.
Population genetics is the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow. It also takes into account the factors of recombination, population subdivision and population structure. It attempts to explain such phenomena as adaptation and speciation
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity or quality of offspring. The focus upon either increased quantity of offspring at the expense of individual parental investment, or reduced quantity of offspring with a corresponding increased parental investment, is varied to promote success in particular environments. The theory was popular in the 1970s and 1980s when it was used as a heuristic device, but lost importance in the early 1990s as it was criticized by several empirical studies.The r/K selection paradigm has been replaced by a “life-history” paradigm. However, this continues to incorporate many of the themes important to the r/K paradigm.
The terminology of r/K-selection was coined by the ecologists Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson based on their work on island biogeography.
III. MARXIAN THEORY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT;
Marxist views
Another strand of opposition to Malthus’s ideas started in the middle of the 19th century with the writings of Friedrich Engels (Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy, 1844) and Karl Marx (Capital, 1867). Engels and Marx argued that what Malthus saw as the problem of the pressure of population on the means of production actually represented the pressure of the means of production on population. They thus viewed it in terms of their concept of the reserve army of labour. In other words, the seeming excess of population that Malthus attributed to the seemingly innate disposition of the poor to reproduce beyond their means actually emerged as a product of the very dynamic of capitalist economy.
Engels called Malthus’s hypothesis “…the crudest, most barbarous theory that ever existed, a system of despair which struck down all those beautiful phrases about love thy neighbour and world citizenship.” Engels also predicted that science would solve the problem of an adequate food supply.
In the Marxist tradition, Lenin sharply criticized Malthusian theory and its neo-Malthusian version, calling it a “reactionary doctrine” and “an attempt on the part of bourgeois ideologists to exonerate capitalism and to prove the inevitability of privation and misery for the working class under any social system”.

5. THE STATE AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRACTION;
These simply entails the process whereby the state inculcates development needs into the developmental psychic of it developmental phase.
6. INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES IN DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
These are structures that are needed in the course of developmental administration. They are measurements used or put in place to aid the developmental process in administration.
7. THE ROLE OF POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTS IN DEVELOPMENT;
These simply entail the need for political stability which is devoid of any rancour or bitterness in order to aid development. If there is stability in a political environment, the rate of development would be faster.
8. DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
These are two different concepts which entail developmental processes. Development planning can be describe as a process of outline in details before hand the developmental needs and challenges of developmental planning in an area. While development administration simply entails the development of the administrative periphery.
9. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR;
These simply entail the need to put in place certain measures necessary in the administrative area in order to allow for private sector participation.
10. THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION;
These entails providing an enabling environment needed for development in the administrative periphery.
(PART 1)
-GLOBALISATION;
Globalization (or Globalization) refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity. It is generally used to refer to economic globalization: the global distribution of the production of goods and services, through reduction of barriers to international trade such as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas and the reduction of restrictions on the movement of capital and on investment. Globalization may contribute to economic growth in developed and developing countries through increased specialization and the principle of comparative advantage.The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, and popular culture.
Critics of globalization allege that globalization’s benefits have been overstated and its costs underestimated. Critics argue that it has decreased inter-cultural contact while increasing the possibility of international and intra-national conflict.
Overview
The term was first employed in a publication entitled Towards New Education in 1930, to denote a holistic view of human experience in education. The related term ‘corporate giants’ was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897, to describe the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. By the 1960s both terms began to be used synonymously by economists and other social scientists. The term reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards.
The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia defines globalization as:
“a widely-used term that can be defined in a number of different ways. When used in an economic context, it refers to the reduction and removal of barriers between national borders in order to facilitate the flow of goods, capital, services and labour… although considerable barriers remain to the flow of labour… Globalization is not a new phenomenon. It began towards the end of the nineteenth century, but it slowed down during the period from the start of the First World War until the third quarter of the twentieth century. This slowdown can be attributed to the inward-looking policies pursued by a number of countries in order to protect their respective industries… however, the pace of globalization picked up rapidly during the fourth quarter of the twentieth century…”
Tom G. Palmer of the Cato Institute defines globalization as “the diminution or elimination of state-enforced restrictions on exchanges across borders and the increasingly integrated and complex global system of production and exchange that has emerged as a result.”
Thomas L. Friedman popularized the term “flat world”, arguing that globalized trade, outsourcing, supply-chaining, and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow.
Takis Fotopoulos defined “economic globalization” as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital and labour markets which led to the present neoliberal globalization. “Political globalization” named the emergence of a transnational elite and the phasing out of the nation-state. “Cultural globalization” was the worldwide homogenization of culture. Other elements included “ideological globalization”, “technological globalization” and “social globalization”.
In 2000 the IMF identified four basic aspects of globalization:
• Trade and transactions: Developing countries increased their share of world trade, from 19 percent in 1971 to 29 percent in 1999. But there is great variation among the major regions. For instance, the newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of Asia prospered, while African countries as a whole performed poorly. The makeup of a country’s exports is an important indicator for success. Manufactured goods exports soared, dominated by developed countries and NIEs. Commodity exports, such as food and raw materials were often produced by developing countries: commodities’ share of total exports declined over the period.
• Capital and investment movements: Private capital flows to developing countries soared during the 1990s, replacing “aid” or development assistance which fell significantly after the early 1980s. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) became the most important category. Both portfolio investment and bank credit rose but they have been more volatile, falling sharply in the wake of the financial crisis of the late 1990s.
• Migration and movement of people: In the period between 1965–90, the proportion of the labor forces migrating approximately doubled. Most migration occurred between developing countries and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The flow of migrants to advanced economic countries was claimed to provide a means through which global wages converge. They noted the potential for skills to be transferred back to developing countries as wages in those a countries rise.
• Dissemination of knowledge (and technology): Information and technology exchange is an integral aspect of globalization. Technological innovations (or technological transfer) benefit most the developing and Least Developing countries (LDCs), as for example the advent of mobile phones.
History
: History of globalization

Extent of the Silk Road and Spice trade routes blocked by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 spurring exploration
The historical origins of globalization remain subject to debate. Though in common usage it refers to the period beginning in the 1970s, some scholars regard it as having an ancient history that encompasses all international activity.[12]

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

VALENTINE C. UWAKWE, is indeed a prolific writer who is widely acknowledge for his wisdom and knowledge in the academic
Field. A graduate of geography & environmental management,
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3 responses

  1. La Roja’s most notorious second recognized as The Roberto Rojas Scandal
    (also known in Chile as the “Maracanazo”) occurred on 3
    September 1989. During a 1990 FIFA World Cup qualifying
    match at Rio de Janeiro’s Maracan stadium, Brazil led Chile 1-.
    A defeat for Chile would eradicate them from the match.
    At all around the 67-moment mark, Chilean goalkeeper Roberto “Cndor” Rojas fell to
    the pitch with an clear harm to his brow. A firework, thrown from the stands by a
    Brazilian fan named Rosemary de Mello, was smouldering about a property absent.
    The match went unfinished.

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