Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature. Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions.
The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwin’s work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.
Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we could adequately describe these factors. In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner’s view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence were lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes.
The first use of the term “emotional intelligence” is usually attributed to Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985.However, prior to this, the term “emotional intelligence” had appeared in Leuner (1966).]Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990), and Daniel Goleman (1995). The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000.
Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006)] to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ, that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004). The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI.
DIMENSION AND THEIR VARIABLES;
There are five dimensions of Emotional Intelligence , which includes; self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy and social skills.
Self-awareness is the ability to understand our feelings, and abilities in terms of strengths and weaknesses. He is able to know why he feels this way, and can see whether he is being reasonable or not.
Self-management is the ability to manage our feelings. When a person is extremely angry, and yet can exercise self-control and conquer his anger, that is an example of good self-management.
A manager who knows how to control his temper can go very far in his chosen professional.
Self-motivation refers to the ability to motivate ourselves.
A person with strong drive to succeed, able to sustain the motivation throughout the years, and maintain a positive attitude has strong self-motivation. Many successful persons share this characteristic.
It is important for a parent to teach the skill of self motivation to his children. Children who can motivate themselves to study hard will have a brighter future. Children who can motivate themselves to save money will never get into uncontrollable debt.
Empathy is the ability to aware of the feelings of others and the ability to understand why they feel this way. Empathy allows us to leverage diversity and see things from different perspectives.
A successful businessman must have empathy. He has to see things from different angles. That enables him to find a win-win solution to benefit all stakeholders.
Social skills refer to the ability to handle a group of people. If you have good social skills, you are able to change the emotions of others. Many charismatic leaders are able to swing the mood of the listeners. They are able to arouse anger and influence change.
Social skills also measure the ability to manage conflict.
HOW THEY OPERATE IF THEY ARE USE IN RESEARCH;
They can be applied to research by adopting the emotional intelligence test which can be undertaken by anyone whether online or manually.
Research of EI and job performance shows mixed results: a positive relation has been found in some of the studies, in others there was no relation or an inconsistent one. This led researchers Cote and Miners (2006)to offer a compensatory model between EI and IQ, that posits that the association between EI and job performance becomes more positive as cognitive intelligence decreases, an idea first proposed in the context of academic performance (Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004). The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI.
While emotional intelligence is not a measurable intelligence, it does affect our success and achievements in life. Those who cannot manage emotions, especially their own emotions, are not able to make wise decisions.