THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY; FUNCTIONS.
The General Assembly is seen as one of the chief organ of the United Nations organization. It could be recall that the united nations was conceive as the answer to a world torn by license and anarchy and ravaged by the excess of aggressive, self-centered national states. Almost from its inception, the United Nations was transformed into an arena of power jostling, and the lesser states were not long in using the world body for their own largely exclusive pursuits. The UN conference on international organization (UNCIO) opened in San Francisco on April 25th, 1945, with forty-six nations represented. Four additional delegations representing Argentina, Denmark, Byelorussia, and Ukraine were subsequently admitted to participate in drafting the charter. The fifty nations represented, plus Poland, became the original members of the United Nations. The UN charter was signed on June 26th, 1945, the delegates of fifty-one nations. After signing the UN charter, the fifty-one signatory states undertook it ratification through their respective constitutional processes.
On August 8, 1945, present Truman ratified the charter of the United Nations and the stature of the international court of justice, which was annexed to it. The nation s came into being on October 24, 1945, which has since been established as United Nations day. On January 10, 1946, with the opening of the first general assembly, the United Nations began its work.
The General Assembly:
Central to the sprawling UN organization, resembling some what the British prototype parliament at west minister in its unifying role, the general assembly functions as the main focus for most UN activities. “Global parliament”, “town meeting of the world”, “sun of the UN solar system” –these and other catch phrases are used to sum up, or perhaps somewhat inaccurately, the general assembly’s widely diffused activities and diverse roles. The general assembly comprises of all UN members which currently stands at 192. Unlike the Security Council, which pays homage to the elitism of great power politics, the assembly effuses the democratic ethos of egalitarianism, parliamentary, or representative government, and majority decision making.
Under the General Assembly there are numerous specialized organs which include main committees, other seasonal committees, standing committees and ad hoc bodies, and her subsidiary organs.
Against a backdrop of politics and diplomacy, the general assembly carries out its various roles and diverse activities, some assigned by the charter and others assumed by the assembly. Some of this roles or functions can be highlighted below…..
1. The general assembly approves the budget of the U.N.O
2. It discusses matters within the scope of the charter or relating to the functions of the organ set up by the charter.
3. It approves the appointment of judges of the international court of justice at The Hague.
4. It approves the appointment of the secretary general.
5. It is empowered to consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security.
6. It elects the ten non-members of the Security Council
7. The assembly controls the finance of the UNO
8. It has the power to suspend or expel any erring members- state
9. It has the power to change or amend the charter of the organization.
10. It admits new members to the organization.
11. It considers questions relating to weapons of war and how to disallow nations from using deadly weapons.
12. It elects the non-permanent members of the trusteeship council and the economic and social council.
13. It coordinates and supervises the works of the councils of the UN such as the trusteeship council and others.
14. The assembly receives and considers reports from all other organs of the UN including specialized agencies.
15. It adopts resolutions on fundamental world issues especially on issues on fundamental human rights.
16. The assembly studies and makes recommendations concerning the development and codification of international laws.
17. When a veto is cast by any of the permanent members, the assembly takes up the matter and makes recommendations.